(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Annual Reports of the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination (1951-1956)"

JO/ 




Digitized by 


the Internet Archive 








in 2013 







http://archive.org/details/annualreportsofmOOmass_0 



•ublic Document 



No. 163 



Qltjp (Snmmanmpaltli of Hassarl^uspttH 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

ANNUAL REPORT 

of the 

jy[assachusetts Commission 
Against Discrimination 

Mildred H. Mahoney, Chairman 
Judge A. K. Cohen, Commissioner 
Elwood S. McKenney, Commissioner 




NOVEMBER 30, 1950 TO NOVEMBER 30, 1951 

41 TREMONT STREET 
BOSTON 8, MASSACHUSETTS 

\ 

Publication of this Document Approved by George T. Cronin, State Purchasing Ac.ent 
in-1-52-906166 



MASS OmCTALS 

JUNll 1952 
Lonterm 



INTRODUCTION 3 

Enforcement Activities 3 

Selected Case Histories — Fair Employment Practices 4 

Public Housing 6 

Boston Housing 6 

Public Accommodations 7 

Age 8 

Statistical Report 8 

EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES 9 

Councils 9 

Boston 9 

Springfield 10 

New Bedford 10 

Worcester 10 

Scrapbook for Teachers 10 

Unit of Study ; 10 

Educational Contacts With Labor Unions & Social Agencies 11 

Radio Spot Announcements 12 

Educational Conferences 12 

Newsletter Toward Racial and Religious Understanding 12 

Eastern States Conference of Commissions Against Discrimination 12 

Materials Available at Commission Office 13 

Speaking Engagements 13 

State Advisory Council Membership 14 

Regional Councils Membership — Springfield 14 

Greater Boston 15 

New Bedford 15 

Worcester 16 



1951 



ANNUAL REPORT 
OF THE 

MASSACHUSETTS COMMISSION AGAINST 
DISCRIMINATION 

Introduction 

The following report, summarizing the progress of the Massachusetts Commission 
Against Discrimination during the 12-month period ending November 30, 1951, is 
the sixth such annual summary to be filed with the Governor and the General Court. 

The record of Massachusetts in the field of civil rights legislation is one of which 
every citizen has reason to be proud. Along with a small group of our neighboring 
states in the Northeast, the Commonwealth since 1946 has pioneered to give full 
meaning to our Constitutional heritage of equal rights. 

The work of this Commission — which was created by the Legislature in May, 
1946 — and the effectiveness of the civil rights statutes it administers are difficult 
to assess, although individual examples of progress are visible all around us. Massa- 
chusetts outlaws discrimination in employment when such discrimination is based 
solely upon race, color, religious creed, national origin or ancestry. In five years 
literally thousands of jobs, for the first time, have been opened to representatives 
of minority groups. Similar success followed the passage of amendments to the 
original law, prohibiting discrimination in places of public accommodations and 
segregation or discrimination in public housing. More recently the legislature out- 
lawed job discrimination which is based solely on age and assigned the administra- 
tion of the new statute to the Commission. 

Too often the success of civil rights legislation is evaluated from the negative 
view: have the number of "incidents" or disturbances been reduced? Such a yard- 
stick would not apply fairly in the Bay State. Massachusetts, fortunately, has always 
been comparatively free of "incidents", although so long as discrimination could be 
practiced in employment, public accommodations or housing there was always the 
potential for violence. And it has been toward the elimination of this potential as 
well as to offer equal opportunities that the efforts of this Commission have been 
directed. 

The handling of complaints alleging violations of the statutes has been one of the 
many means used by the Commission to effectuate the broad law. Up to the filing of 
this report, the Commission has settled 681 cases and conducted 244 investigations. 
In every instance, except one which necessitated a hearing, the suggestions for 
amicable conciliation made by the Commission during the initial conference period 
have been accepted agreeably by both complainant and respondent. 

Credit for the success of this type of social legislation is widely shared. Many 
groups have worked with this state agency to promote its twofold program for 
furthering better intergroup understanding through law enforcement and education. 

Enforcement Activities 

Complaints and Investigations 

The Fair Employment Practice Act of 1946 as amended in 1950 authorizes the 
Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination (MCAD) to accept or initiate 
complaints based upon sworn charges of discrimination or segregation in employ- 
ment, public housing or the use of public accommodations. Such complaints may be 
filed against an employer, a labor union, an employment agency, a public housing 
authority or a proprietor of certain specially designated places of public accom- 
modation. 



4 

In the period covered by this sixth annual report, November 30, 1950 — November i 
30, 1951, MCAD initiated, received or processed 217 matters involving ewployvtent \ 
discrimination. Of these. 109 were based upon allegations of discrimination be- 1 
cause of race, color, religious creed or ancestry. The remainder. 108, were based j 
upon allegations of discrimination because of age. | 

In addition, MCAD handled 24 matters involving allegations of discrimination by | 
places of public occoiiiwod.itinn because of race or religion. One continuing in- i! 
vestigation of several months duration was conducted under the public housing 
amendment and is described in the section entitled, Public Housing. \ 

Forty-eight percent of complaints filed because of alleged discrimination in em- i 
ployment due to race, color, religious creed, national origin or ancestry were settled , 
after investigation and conference and resulted in agreements which corrected an j 
unlawful employment practice. Forty-one percent of these complaints were closed \ 
for lack of probable cause, five percent were disposed of for lack of commission 
jurisdiction, and six percent were withdrawn. 

In ninety-three percent of the complaints and investigations concerning age some 
evidence of discrimination was found and corrected. 

In sixty-six percent of the complaints and investigations concerning places of 
public accommodation, some evidence of discrimination was found and corrected. 

Selected Case Histories — Fair Emilovmknt Practices 



In August a young colored woman filed a complaint of employment discrimination 
against a superintendent of schools alleging that although she was well qualified 
she had been refused further consideration for a teaching vacancy when it had 
become known that she was colored. 

Invc ligation having substantiated the allegation, conferences were arranged be- 
tween the local school committee and representatives of MCAD as a result of 
which an adjustment was made whereby the young woman was placed in a full 
time teaching position comparable to the one for which she had applied. 

About three weeks later, the complainant wrote to MCAD, "Please accept my 
thanks to you for the investigation and unrelenting efforts exhibited . . . two weeks 
have passed now and the cooperation from the superintendent has been splen- 
did . , . the principal has extended me the same rights and privileges as has been 
given other teachers . . . thanks for everything." 

Referring to the appointment, an article in the local paper stated, in part, *'So 
the bnsic fact remains that the (school) committee acted promptly and unanimously 
and without publicity. For this they deserve the praise and admiration of Americans 
everywhere." (Case No. VI-49-C) 

2. 

In February. MCAD conducted its first formal hearing based on a complaint by 
a bartender against an employment agency alleging that he had not been referred by 
the latter to specific jobs because of his color. 

After investigation had substantiated the statements of the complainant, a number 
of informal conferences were held to no avail to bring about a practicable adjust- 
ment. The case was therefore certified to a formal hearing before the Commission, 
as provided by law. The formal hearing resulted in a finding that the law had been 
violated and MCAD issued a cease and desist order against the respondent employ- 
ment agency which order was thereafter affirmed in the Superior Court of Massa- 
chusetts. The respondent was required to make reix)rts over a six months period 
to MCAD as to the method of his compliance. (Case No. V-49-C) 

3. 

Final disposition was made in March of a complaint brought by a young colored 
veteran against a street railway company alleging that his application for em- 
ployment as an operator had been consistently ignored. 

Investigation revealed that the Company had, in fact, hired several new employees 
subsequent to the application of the complainant and although it laid the blame to 



5 



its informal hiring procedure, a finding of probable cause was made based on all 
the facts and circumstances of the case. 

Subsequently and coincidentally with the hiring by the Company of its first col- 
ored operator (the complainant having been employed elsewhere), the Company en- 
tered into a conciliation agreement with MCAD which included the following 
stipulation : "In furtherance of and consistent with the law, the Company con- 
templates that when additional operators of buses are hired, all qualified applicants 
will be given equal consideration whether they are colored or net." 

About this time a local paper commenting on the employment of the colored 

driver said, . . patrons of the line who have accepted 's place behind the 

wheel almost without notice or comment report that he shows considerable skill 
in his handling the bus and is genial in his dealings with bus riders — which is 

perhaps all that the public expects from any driver . . . , general manager of the 

Company confirmed the fact that the Negro is a driver and that to date he has 
satisfactorily filled the position. " (Case No. V-2-C) 

4. 

In June a young colored woman filed a complaint against a greater Boston manu- 
facturing company after she had been refused a technical position for which she had 
applied in response to an advertisement placed with the State Employment Service. 
In her charge the complainant stated that the attitude and statements of the depart- 
ment head, by whom she had been interviewed, indicated that she was denied em- 
ployment solely because of her color. 

Investigation having established the facts alleged, conferences were held between 
MCAD and the Company. The Company reacted favorably to the suggestion 
that the complainant be placed in a position comparable to the one denied her. As 
a matter of fact, subsequently the complainant was hired by the respondent, -in the 
position for which she initially applied. (Case No. VI-36-C) 

5. 

In October a complaint was disposed of in which the allegation had been made 
and substantiated that the general manager of a Boston manufacturing company had 
asked the complainant her religion and had subsequently refused to employ her on 
the ground that she was not an adherent of the faith desired. 

As a result of conferences on this complaint between the Company and MCAD, 
the former changed this employment practice and, as an expression of good faith 
on its part, paid two weeks pay to the complainant who had been subsequently em- 
ployed elsewhere. (Case No. VI-46-RC) 

6. 

A branch of a chain department store had a sign in the window for experienced 
salesgirls and waitresses. Mrs. B and a friend, both colored women, went inside to 
apply for positions as salesgirls. They were not asked to fill out application forms, 
although there were some application forms on the desk. The women felt a 
complete disinterest in them as applicants — they were not asked for which job 
they applied and were told there were no positions open as of that time. 

Investigation of Mrs. B's complaint, however, revealed that seven girls were hired 
between the time Mrs. B and her friend applied and the time of filing the complaint. 
Further investigation showed that it was company policy to have every applicant 
fill out an application form and to keep such forms on file at least seven months. 
Neither of these things was done in complainant's case. It was also company policy 
to give all applicants an interview, but the complainant was not interviewed. After 
several conferences at the Commission, the complainant was asked by the Company 
to re-apply for the job. This time she was given an interview. The store manager 
agreed to hire Mrs. B at the first opportunity. This occurred four months after 
the complainant had first applied at the store. She was placed selling babies' and 
infants' clothing. Two or three weeks later the store m.anager reported to the field 
investigator that Mrs. B was "terrific" as a salesgirl. After six weeks she was given 
an increase in pay, although usually a three month period elapses before such a raise 
is given. Mrs. B later informed the Commission that the store manager told her 



6 



she had turned in the largest number of receipts of any salesgirl in the history of 
the store. Mrs. B had to leave the store because of illness. She was told she could 
come back whenever she felt she was well enough, and that she could make her 
own hours. (Case No. V-30-C) 

7. 

In June a young man of Chinese ancestry filed a complaint against a large truck- 
ing company for which he was working, alleging discrimination in employment ad- 
vancement. The complainant who was working as a dockman claimed that he was 
denied a promotion to a truck driver position by the Company on at least three 
occasions and that men with less seniority than he had were promoted to the po- 
sition of driver. 

Investigation by the Commission revealed that the complainant had been given 
the job of truck driving for one day which necessitated making two deliveries. He 
stated he was not continued in this position because a representative of the Company 
felt that his customers would object to a Chinese driver picking up freight or making 
deliveries to their premises. Such objections could not be substantiated. 

After a series of conferences with representatives of the Commission, the re- 
spondent promoted the complainant to the position of truck driver. (Case No. 
VI-32-A) 

Public Housing 

The Commission has been in correspondence with eighty- four housing authorities 
and has examined all the material used in their tenant selection. It has also met with 
the chairmen and members of the housing authorities in Boston, Cambridge, Spring- 
field, Worcester, New Bedford and some of the other larger cities throughout the 
state. In every instance the Commission has received promises of cooperation. Bos- 
ton is showing an integrated pattern in its new housing developments. A detailed 
description follows. 

Boston Housing 

The pattern of racial segregation and discrimination in public housing in the City 
of Boston was set as early as 1940 at the beginning of the federal slum clearance 
program. By 1950 colored families were housed exclusively in two projects in 
the South End and in a wing of a third. 

The attention of AICAD (then known as FEPC) was directed to this situation 
for the first time in the spring of 1949. It was apparent even then, and was made 
clearer later, that it had been an unwritten policy of the Boston Housing Authority 
from its inception to segregate colored families in these projects and to exclude 
them from all others. 

In the middle of 1950 when the Fair Employment Practice Act was amended to 
provide that there should be no discrimination or segregation in public housing 
and to give MCAD complaint jurisdiction in this field, the Commission took up the 
task in earnest of changing this discriminatory pattern. 

As a result of conferences at this time and others early in 1950 between MCAD 
and the Boston Housing Authority, the two agencies worked out a general agreement 
that appropriate steps consistent with tlie new law would be taken to insure equality 
of opportunity for all eligible applicants for public housing in Boston. 

First, Mayor John B. Hynes issued a public statement to all the Boston papers 
assuring the people of Boston that equal treatment would be given to all applicants 
for public housing regardless of race or creed. 

Next, the Boston Housing Authority issued instructions to its tenant selection 
department and the managers of the individual projects to the effect that eligible 
applicants were to be accepted anywhere without regard to color or religion. 

Later, a plan was devised whereby representatives of MCAD worked closely 
with the Housing Authority as the new policy was being put into effect in the newly 
constructed housing projects which were being occupied in 1951. 

About this period a joint delegation of cooperating community relations agencies 
in Boston met with the Mayor, commended him for his support of this program 
and offered suggestions to implement the new policy. In addition, later in the year 



7 



this congress of agencies undertook at its own expense a program to acquaint 
members of minority groups with the new housing developments. 

What happened as a result of this activity was graphically reported in various 
newspapers throughout the United States in a special article which is reproduced 
here (as featured by the Baltimore-Afro-American in its magazine section of No- 
vember 10, 1951.) 

"Without fanfare or notoriety the City of Boston has given the lie to the argu- 
ment that persons of different racial or religious backgrounds cannot live side by 
side in peace and harmony. In marked contrast to such communities as Cicero, 
outside of Chicago, where premeditated riots followed attempts of colored families 
to obtain decent housing in 'all-white' neighborhoods, Boston, through its Housing 
Authority, has successfully integrated white and non-white families in public 
housing without friction. 

"Breaking away from the practice of segregating colored families in separate but 
similar projects, the city has placed colored and white families in the same apart- 
ment blocks in its two newest multiple housing units. To demonstrate the success of 
their pioneering efforts in integrated public housing, the Boston Housing Authority 
in a recent copy of its magazine 'Your Home' proudly published a picture of a group 
of colored and white children happily playing together, sharing their toys. 

" 'It is only to be regretted that pictures such as these showing the best in American 
life, cannot be flashed around the country to show our people what is possible when 
men of intelligence set about to build democratic communities,' was the comment 
of Elwood S. McKenney, member of the State Commission Against Discrimination, 
in a letter to the chairman of the Housing Authority, James J. Mahar. 

"The successful experiment which has rapidly become the established practice 
was begun by the Housing Authority after conferences with members of the 
Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination, a public agerxy. The ice was 
broken when a project in Boston's crowded South End was opened. 

"Here, colored families for the first time were admitted on the same basis as 
white families. Today 77 of the 808 units in the 'sky-scraper' development are occu- 
pied by non-whites. The next development completed was in Brighton and, although 
there were considerably fewer colored applicants for admission, 18 of the 24 Negro 
families that applied found apartments. 

"Among the organizations assisting were the American Jewish Committee, Amer- 
ican Civil Liberties Union, Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, National 
Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Boston Labor Committee to 
Combat Intolerance, Frances Sweeney Committee, Freedom House, Jewish Com- 
munity Council, Urban League, Jewish Labor Committee, Americans for Demo- 
cratic Action and the National Conference of Christians and Jews." 

Excellent service and valuable assistance were rendered to MCAD by repre- 
sentatives of the United States Public Housing Administration in this area. 

Public Accommodations 

The Commission members met with the heads of various hotel associations and 
discussed the provisions of the new amendment which prohibited not only dis- 
crimination, itself, but also advertisements intended to discriminate or actually 
discriminating. 

The Commission has written 350 letters chiefly to resort hotels, asking that they 
send to the Commission for examination any advertising material that they are using. 

Of the hotels contacted by letter regarding the public accommodations law, seven 
throughout the entire state used such phrases as "select clientele" in their literature. 
These seven have eliminated these phrases. 

About 250 of the hotels contacted replied to the Commission's questionnaire. 
Those which failed to reply were found, in every instance, to have moved or to have 
gone out of business. Among the 250 hotels which supplied the Commission with 
their literature, 39 used such terms as "churches nearby", "Protestant and Catholic 
churches in vicinity", or "a few minutes' drive to stores, churches, etc." The 
Commission has been informed that such phrases are considered by many people 
to be a revision or altered version of "restricted clientele" or "selected clientele" and 
that they are used with an intent to discriminate. As yet the MCAD does not feel 
it has sufficient evidence to substantiate this view, but it is conducting further inquiry. 



8 



In many instances where churches were mentioned by Massachusetts resorts, the 
references to them appear in paragraphs which read: "Near shopping area, summer 
theatre nearby ; churcties nearby ; excellent beach, one minute walk, etc." The ad- 
vertising brochures of these Massachusetts hotels seemed otherwise free of any 
phrase which could be interpreted as being used with the intent to discriminate. 

Age 

The Commission members met with representatives of industry, labor, insurance 
companies, the Massachusetts Employment Service, private employment agencies, 
newspapers and lawyers to discuss its new responsibility with regard to discrimina- 
tion in employment on account of age (45-65). 

As a result of its meeting with the members of the Massachusetts Newspaper 
Information Service, the chairman of the MNIS sent out the following letter: 

To Classified Advertising Manugers: February 3, 1951 

Be careful of advertisements specifying age of prospective employees. Last 
October 30 there became effective a new state law prohibiting discrimination 
in employment of persons between the age of 45 and 65. After the law was 
passed, it became the task of the Massachusetts Commission Against Dis- 
crimination to carry out enforcement. 

If the employer can prove that the age requirement is necessary, he is ex- 
empted from the provisions of the law. This type of exemption is called 
a 'bona fide job qualification." 

The Commission has pointed out that newspapers become parties to violation 
of the law if they carry advertising that mentions age in connection with 
jobs for which there is no "bona fide job qualification." 

We urge that you have your ad takers watch out for help wanted ads 
mentionmg age. The ad taker should ask the prospective employer if the age 
requirement is a job qualification under the meaning of the law. If the 
prospective employer answers in the affirmative, the paper is legally covered, 
the Commission assures us. 

If the job qualificaLion of age is in violation of the law, the paper becomes 
a party to any complaint that may be issued. 

Remember, however, it is up to the prospective employer to meet the provisions 
of the law. If he has any questions about age requirements in a job adver- 
tisement, he can call the Commission Against Discrimination at CApitol 
7-3111 or write to the Commission at 41 Tremont Street, Boston 8, Massa- 
chusetts. 

The law does not apply to domestic help nor to persons or businesses employing 
less than six people. 

If you have any questions about this law and its application to your news- 
paper, write or call either John R. Herbert, Chairman, Massachusetts News- 
paper Information Service, c/o Quincy Patriot Ledger, Quincy 69, Massa- 
chusetts, or Gardner Campbell, Secretary, c/o Wakefield Daily Item, Wake- 
field, Massachusetts. 

The Commission evolved a combination of educational-regulatory work to carry 
out the age amendment. The field staff was assigned to check thoroughly the help- 
wanted columns in the newspapers for advertisements for "young" men or women, 
general ads calling for "girls" or "boys", or for ads with age limitations affecting 
the 45-65 age bracket. Letters went to each employer so advertising, advising him that 
he could submit to the Commission certain job classifications he felt should be ex- 
empted from the age law for bona fide reasons, and the Commission would pass 
on each individual case upon its merits. 

The larger Boston metropolitan dailies (those with large classified ad sections) as 
a public service cooperated with the Commission in running advertisements calling at- 
tention to the age amendment. 

STATISTICAL REPORT 
November 10, 1946 to November 30, 1951 

Complaints : 



Initiated and received 

Closed after formal hearing 



715 
1 



9 



♦Closed after investigation and conference 401 

♦Closed for lack of probable cause 229 

Closed for lack of jurisdiction 25 

Withdrawn 25 

Pending investigation and conference 34 

Investigations Without Formal Complaint: 

Initiated by the Commission 248 

♦Closed after investigation and conference 189 

♦Closed for lack of probable cause 52 

Transferred to complaint 3 

Pending investigation and conference 4 

Nature of Complaints and Inx-estigations : 

Based upon alleged color discrimination 562 

Based upon alleged religious discrimination 150 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of race 36 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of national origin 94 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of ancestry 11 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of age 110 

Type of Complaints : 

Against employers 651 

Against employment agencies 75 

Against labor unions 27 

Against employes 3 

Others 207 

•Interpretation of these phrases on next page. 



The following paragraphs may be found in the Commission's RULES OF 
PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE of November 19. 1947: 

Case dismissed for lack of probable cause means that "if the Investigating Com- 
missioner, after investigation, is of the opinion that the respondent has not en- 
gaged and is not engaging in any unlawful employment practice, he may order the 
complaint dismissed for lack of probable cause, and entry of such disposition 
shall be made on the records of the Commission." 

Case closed after investigation and conference means that "if, after investigation 
and conference, the Investigating Commissioner is satisfied that any unlawful em- 
ployment practice of the respondent will be eliminated, he may, with the consent 
of the complamant, treat the complaint as conciliated, and entry of such disposition 
shall be made on the records of the Commission." 

Educational Activities 

Councils 

Councils have played an important part in the educational work of the Com- 
mission. As usual, the State Advisory Council has conferred with the Commission 
on matters of programming and policy. The Regional Councils have continued, in tlie 
main, educational activities similar to those reported in last year's annual report. 

In Boston, Council Chairman Harold D. Hodgkinson, vice-president and general 
manager of William Filene's Sons Company, called together his council members 
and representatives from the Mayor's Civic Improvement Committee of Boston; 
Brookline Community Relations Committee ; Lynn Community Relations Committee 
and the Cambridge Civic Unity Committee. The group discussed the work of public 
human relations agencies and decided to hold an institute. The institute will take 
place in the spring of 1952. 

Mr. Clark E. Woodward, who is senior vice-president and director of the Liberty 
Mutual Insurance Company, succeeded Mr. Hodgkinson as Chairman of the Greater 
Boston Council. Mr. Woodward has served as Chairman of the Boston Y.M.C.A. 
Capital Funds Campaign and is a trustee of the Newton Center Savings Bank and 
the Newton-Wellesley Hospital. Mr. Hodgkinson will retain his membership on 
the Council. 



10 



In Springfield, Co-Council Chairmen Roger L. Putnam, president of the Package 
Machinery Company (now Director of Economic Stabilization) and Miss Alice 
L. Halligan, Director, Bureau of Guidance, Placement and Adult Education, Spring- 
field Public Schools, and their council members sponsored a survey of stores, banks, 
insurance companies, public utility companies and hotels. 

In New Bedford, Mr. Anthony J. Snyder, Vice-President and Assistant to the 
President of the Morse Twist Drill & Machine Company, has succeeded Mr. Walter 
S. MacPhail of the Wamsutta Mills as Chairman of the New Bedford Council. 
Mr. MacPhail will retain his membership on the Council. 

In Worcester, Council Chairman Philip M. Morgan, President, Morgan Con- 
struction Company, and his council members cooperated with the Worcester Lodge 
of B'nai B'rith in presenting two of the radio broadcasts in the "New Frontier" 
series over station WTAG. The Council also cooperated with the Worcester 
Woman's Forum in putting on an evening Institute on "Human Relations in In- 
dustry." 

SCRAPEOOK FOR TeACHERS 

The 1950 edition of the Scrapbook for Teachers was requested by public and 
parochial schools throughout the Commonwealth, and by agencies in more than half 
the states in the country. This was the third edition of the Scrapbook. 

Press comment warmly praised this booklet : 

"Parents and teachers who have a militant interest in the 'battle of ideologies' 
are being supplied with a sturdy implement for the development of good will in 
the furtherance of human relations . . ." The Boston Pilot. 

"The reaction, after reading, is to regret that it can't go into every home . . ." 
Bill Schofield, Boston Traveler. 

"The stories in the Scrapbook show, in an unusual way, the folly of intoler- 
ance . . ." The Boston Post. 

Teachers and school superintendents reacted to the Scrapbook by promptly sending 
in requests for "as many as you can send" or "enough for use in my classroom." 

The Massachusetts Committee, Catholics, Protestants and Jews again cooperated 
in editing the Scrapbook. 

Unit of Study 

A new, revised Unit of Study on the laws administered by the Commission 
Against Discrimination, for use m classrooms throughout the state, has been pre- 
pared in cooperation with the Civic Education Project in Cambridge. 

The Unit will be ready for distribution to the schools early in 1952. 

Excerpts from the Unit follow: 

Discrimination — Danger to Democracy 
Overview 

"Most thinking Americans are firmly convinced, now, more than ever before, that 
'discrimination is not only immoral, but is bad business.' Peace within this country 
and peace in the world without, insofar as we can influence the conditions which make 
for it, is dependent upon intergroup understanding, respect and good will. And the 
good will must be translated into action. 

"Discriminatory acts which are evidenced in our civic behavior take several 
forms. Among the most harmful practices are those which deny equality of oppor- 
tunity to all American citizens with respect to employment ; to equal treatment in 
places of public accommodation and in (public) housing. These denials of basic 
rights may serve (1) to weaken the loyalty of some Americans to the democratic 
way of life; and (2) to provide propaganda material for those who do not like 
our system of government whereby they can attempt to prove to the rest of the 
world that we do not practice what we preach. 

"As a people believing in a government by laws, we have safeguarded our civil 
liberties by many legislative acts. Laws designed to prohibit discrimination in em- 
ployment and public housing have been enacted by the representatives of the people 
in our federal and in many of our state governments . . . Inquiry into the 
wisdom and effectiveness of laws affecting areas where discriminations persist 



11 



is a rightful task for education to concern itself with. Thus the development of 
this unit of teaching material . . ." 

Objectives 

A. To gain the following Understandiyigs: 

1. "That equality of opportunity is a basic American right. 

2. "That America's greatness is owed in part, at least, to tne willingness 
of people of many backgrounds to work together and to live to- 
gether in a spirit of cooperation and mutual respect. 

3. "That the enactment of state legislation prohibiting discrimination in 
employment, in places of public accommodation and in public housing is 
consistent with the American tradition of safeguarding liberty by law. 

4. "That opportunity to work should be proffered in terms of ability to 
fulfill the requirements of the job, regradless of the race, color, re- 
ligious creed, national origin, age or arxestry of the applicant. 

5. "That opportunity for advancement in any field of work should not 
be denied because of race, color, religious creed, national origin, age 
or ancestry. 

6. "That the right of any person or persons to obtain public housing and 
lodging should not be denied because of race, color, religious creed, 
national origin or ancestry. 

7. "That the acceptance of a job should carry with it the duty to give 'an 
honest day's work for an honest day's pay,' and the obligation not to 
discriminate against the employer or any fellow employee. 

8. "That the obtaining of housing accommodation should carry with it 
the responsibility to respect and protect the property, and the obliga- 
gation not to discriminate against fellow residents and neighbors. 

9. "That the elimination or toning down of prejudices contributes to the 
wiping out of discrimination . , ." 

The Unit presents suggestions for classroom activity and discussions, and com- 
prehensive bibliographies for both teacher and student. In the words of the Unit: 

". . . Acts of discrimination owe their origin to prejudice. Prejudices are learned. 
To the American system of education, in part at least, belongs the responsibility to 
impart the kind of information and to provide the means of action whereby young 
people hopefully may grow up equipped with sound and wholesome understandings 
and a will to behave as the good citizen behaves. This behavior will promote inter- 
group understanding, respect and good will." 

The Unit is suggested for use in senior high schools, and the time allotment 
for presentation is two weeks. 

Educational Contacts With Labor Unions & Social Agencies 

A field representative from the Commission was guest speaker at a full member- 
ship meeting of the Boston Central Labor Union before more than 300 delegates. 
As a follow-up of that meeting nine union? affiliated with the American Federation 
of Labor were contacted through international representatives, business agents, 
and/or executive board members. These were : International Longshoremen's As- 
sociation ; Building Service Employees ; Retail Clerks Association ; International 
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers; International Brotherhood of Pulp, Sulphite 
and Paper Mill Workers; Bakery and Confectionery Workers; International Alli- 
ance of Theatrical State Employees and Moving Picture Machine Operators of 
the United States and Canada; International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, 
Warehousemen and Helpers of America; Boot and Shoe Workers Union. 

Another field representative of the Commission called upon a group of C.I.O. 
Unions, and, with the help of the Boston Labor Committee to Combat Intolerance, 
proposed for their use a "package program" of films and a talk on the laws ad- 
ministered by the Commission. Eleven union officials of various C.I.O. unions 
were visited, including: Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America; International 
Union of United Brewery, Soft Drink and Distillery Workers of America; United 
Automobile, Aircraft and Agricultural Implement Workers of America; United 
Optical and Instrument Workers of America; United Steelworkers of America; 
United Rubber, Cork, Linoleum and Plastic Workers of America. 

A third field representative of the Commission was assigned to confer with ex- 
ecutives of social service agencies. This field representative visited community 



12 



councils in Lowell, Lawrence, Worcester, Framingham, Fi'xhburg, Haverhill and 
Salem. Representative social agencies in Boston were also visited and the Com- 
mission's work was discussed with their executives. A total of fifteen conferences 
were held with agencies and councils. In every conference except one, alleged 
instances of discrimination against one minority or another in a particular area 
were cited. Social workers underlined the need for more education of their group 
concerning the Commission Against Discrimination and the laws it administers. 

Radio Spot Announcements 

The cooperation of radio program directors was sought in the Commission's 
educational program. The radio executives agreed to make provision for spot an- 
nouncements describing the Commission's work and gave public service time on 
their stations. 

Thirty-nine radio stations were sent letters requesting them to use the spot an- 
nouncements. Also enclosed was a reply card to determine how many of the stations 
would use the material. Eighteen reply c irds were returned from stations large 
and small located in : Boston. Gardner, Pittsfield, Fitchburg, Greenfield, Lowell, 
Haverhill, Brockton, Lynn, Chicopee. North Adams, Springfield and Cambridge, all 
stating they would use the announcements. 

Sample spot announcements used by the stations follow : 

The people of Massachusetts agree that a person's race, color, creed or national 
origin should make no difference when applying for a job ... or when em- 
ployed. If you think you have been discriminated against, write to the Massa- 
chusetts Commission Against Discriminalion, a state agency, at 41 Tremont 
Street, Boston. 

Your labor union, your employment agency, your employer and your fellow 
employees are all concerned in Massachusetts' Law Against Discrimination. 
To see where you fit into the picture, write the Massachusetts Commission 
Against Discrimination, a state agency, at 41 Tremont Street, Boston. 
Your race, religion and nationality have no more to do with your ability on 
the job than docs tiie color of your hair. The people of Massachusetts recog- 
nize this in their State Law Against Discrimination. To learn what this 
Law means to you, write to the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrim- 
ination, a state agency, at 41 Tremont Street, Boston. 

Educational Conferences 

Twenty-six conferences were held during tlie year at the Commission office. These 
conferences were held with civil rights agencies, representatives of business, labor, 
government agencies, both federal and state, newspapers, colleges, and others. The 
subject matter covered was varied. It included terminology of resort hotel adver- 
tising, methods of accjuainting the general public witli the law. commission surveys 
and policies regarding the recent amendments concerning age, public accommodations 
and public housing. 

Newsletter Toward Racial and Religious Understanding 

The quarterly Newsletter continues to be a feature of the Commission's edu- 
cational program. It gathers from organizations all over the state information about 
local programs aimed at promoting better understanding of all groups in the com- 
munity. 

Eastern States Conference of Commissions Against Discrimination 

Massachusetts was host state for the third annual conference of Eastern States 
Commissions Against Discrimination which took place at the New Ocean House, 
Swampscott, June 12 and 13. Delegations from commissions in Connecticut. New 
Jersey. New York and Rhode Island, and from the municipal commission in Phil- 
adelphia participated in the conference sessions. Invited guests at the conference 
were: H. L. Connor, Director, Massachusetts Division of Apprentice Training; 
J. B. Metzler. Deputy Minister of Labor, Toronto. Ontario; L. Fine, Director, 
FEPC, Toronto, Ontario, and W. S. Van Meter. Deputy Commissioner. Oregon. 
The program of the conference follows: 

Tuesday. June 12. 1951. General Session 

Report of Conference Planning Committee on Matters of Unfinished Business 
1. Racial Designation in News Stories 



13 



2. Clarification Concerning Uniform Terminology 

3. Progress in Regard to Problems of Discrimination in the Field of 
Insurance 

Action by Several Commissions During 1950 on Resolutions Passed at Second 
Annual Conference 

"Apprentice Training as it relates to Fair Employment Practices." Speaker 
Mr. Hubert L. Connor, Director, Massacliusetts Division Apprentice Training. 
Wednesday, June 13, 1951, Genera! Session 
Reports From Discussion Groups 

1. Regulatory Matters 

a. Conciliation agreement terms 

b. Litigation 

c. Public Hearings 

d. Subpoenas 

e. Public Housing 

2. Educational Matters 

a. Public Relations — Techniques 

b. Use of Mass Media 

1. Radio and Television 

2. Periodical Literature 

3. Newsletters 

4. Newspaper Articles 

5. Posters 

6. Exhibits 

c. Use of Survey of Study as Educational Device 
Reports of Committees 

New Business 

Motions Made and Passed at 1951 ECCAD 
Motions Referred to Planning Committee for Action 
Resolutions of 1951 ECCAD 
Materials Available at Commission Offjee 

Summary of Laws Against Discrimimtion 

Summary of Activities February. 1950 

Summary of Activities 1950-1951 

Policies 

Rules of Practice and Procedure 

Fair Employment Practice Law & Amendments 

Case Histories 

What is the Fair Employment Practice Law? 
Are You Missino^ a Bet? 
Scrapbook for Teachers 

Speaking Exgagements 

Commission speakers participated in institutes and other speaking programs spon- 
sored by a wide variety of organizations. A partial list follows. The total number 
of such appearances by Commission personnel was sixty-eight. 
Management Training Program, Radcliflfe College 

Civics & Social Legislation Committee, Boston Section, Nat'l Council of 

Jewish Women 
Worcester Woman's Forum 
Lawrence Lodge, B'nai B'rith 

Labor Institute on Race Relations (sponsored by Boston Labor Committee 

to Combat Intolerance) 
Boston College School of Social Work 

Economic Opportunities Committee, Jewish Community Council 
Temple Beth Hillel 

Annual Meeting Massachusetts Association of Deans 

Annual Conference of Principals of Junior and Senior High Schools 

Harvard School of Business Administration 

Massachusetts Vocational Association 

Beth El Brotherhood's Mother's Day Breakfast 

Union Methodist Church 

Blue Hills Lodge, B'nai B'rith 

Brookline Community Relations Committee 

Psychology Clinic. Harvard University 

Quincy Rotary Club 

Greater Boston Association of Industrial Nurses 



14 



Course in "Responsible Citizenship" Tufts College 

Inter-Racial Justice Club, Holy Cross College 

New Bedford College Club 

Applicant Preparation Workshop 

Cambridge Jewish Youth Group 

Boston University Branch, New Boston Committee 

Wenham Men's Club 

Worcester Branch, NAACP 

Lowell-Lawrence Institute, Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, CIO 
American AflFairs Committee. Brookline Hadassah 
Inter for Club of Lynn (Alen's College Graduate Group) 
Civic Forum, North End Union 
Joint Meeting Haverhill Kiwanis-Rotary Clubs 
»-Uphams Corner Kiwanis Club 
First Church (Unitarian) Boston 
Messiah Baptist Church, Brockton 

Vocatirnal Instructors, Agricultural Teacher-Training Program, University 

of Massachusetts 
Everett Kiwanis Club 
Allston-Brighton Kiwanis Club 

Institute on Human Relations, Nat'l Conference of Christians and Jews, 

Boston University 
Boston University Law School 

Church of All Nations f Workshop - Institute of Christian Social Relations) 

Mass. and Boston Councils of Churchwomen 
Mass. Stnte Union of Women's Clubs, Zion Church 
Civil Rights Rally, NAACP 
Mass. State Federation of Women's Clubs 
Cnmbridre Community Relations Committee 

Trevor Arnett Library. Athnta University, Department of Sociology 

N.>\ACP Convention. Atlanta, Georgia 

Meeting of Private Secondary Schools on Public AflFairs 

State Advisory Council Membership 

John J. Desmond. Jr.. Chairwan. Commissioner of Education 
Rt. Rev. Rorfrt P. Barry. LLD.. St. Clement's Church, Trustee of Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital 
Thomas H. Carens. Vice-President in Charge of Public Relations, Boston Edison 
Company 

Charles C. Dasfy. (Retired, Manager, Cunard White Star, Ltd.) 

The Rev. David R. Hunter, Executive Secretary, Department of Christian Edu 

cation, Eniscopal Diocese of Massachusetts 
Judge Jacob J. Kaplan, former President, Boston Bar Association 

Regional Councils Membership 

Spruig field 

Roger L. Putnam, Co-Chairman, Director, Economic Stabilization Agency; 

President, Prckage Machinery Company 
Miss Alice L. Halligan, Co-Ch nnnau, Director, Bureau of Guidance, Placement 

and Adult Education, Springfield School Department 
Mrs. Richard B. Anderson, League of Women Voters 
Archie Burack, Member, Springfield City Council 
Thomas G. Carr, President, Bay Path Secretarial School 
Maurice M. Chaffin, President, Bay State Thread Works 
George C. Gordon. President, N. E. Regional Conference, National Association 

for the Advancement of Colored People 
James H. Higgins. former President, Springfield City Council 
Harry P. Hogan. Business Agent, Carpenters' District Council, AFL 
Dr. Garry deN. Hough, Jr. 

Robert W, Hutton, Secretary, Western Massachusetts Employers' Association 
Raymond T. King. Attorney, Springfield Shopping News 

Mrs. TiielmA L. Keitlen, Community Consultant. Western Massachusetts Area, 
Anti-Defamation League 



15 



Dr. Howard P. Kennedy 

Alexander B. Mapp, Executive Secretary — The Urban League of Springfield, 
Incorporated 

Dr. Paul M. Limbert, President, Springfield College 

Mrs. Albert G. Rivett, Parent-Teachers Association 

Frederick B. Robinson, Director, Springfield Museum of Fine Arts 

James J. Shea, President, Milton-Bradley Company 

Charles Vivenzio, Secretary-Treasurer, Western Massachusetts CIO Council 

Greater Boston 

Clark E. Woodward, Chairman, Senior Vice-President, Liberty Mutual Insurance 
Company 

Norman H. Abbott, Director, Boston University Placement Service 
J, William Belanger, President, Mass. State CIO 

Robert G. Bleakney, Vice-President, Personnel, New England Telephone and 
Telegraph Company 

Salvatore Camelio, Secretary-Teasurer, Mass. State CIO, District Director, 

United Rubber Workers, CIO 
Abram T. Collier, Second Vice-President. John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance 

Company 

NoRRis G. Davis, Funeral Director 

Bradley Dewey, President, Dewey and Almy Chemical Company 

Harry Graces, Advisor to Labor Division, NAACP, Secretary and Business 

Agent, Boston Central Labor Union 
Harold D. Hodgkinson, Vice-President and General Manager, William Filene's 

Sons Company 

Michael T. Kelleher, Vice-President, Marsh and McLennan, Inc., Fire Com- 
missioner, City of Boston 

Kenneth J. Kelley, Secretary-Treasurer, Legislative Agent, Massachusetts State 
Federation of Labor. 

Thomas A. Pappas, President, Pappas^ Wholesale Liquor Company 

Colonel Leonard T. Peters, Peters Employment Service 

F. Frank Vorenberg, President, Gilchrist Company, President, Greater Boston 
Community Council 

New Bedford 

Anthony J. Snyder, Chairman, Vice-President and Ass't. to the President, Morse 

Twist Drill and Machine Company 
Judge Samuel Barnet 

Allan Barrows, Treasurer, Gosnold Mills Corp. (deceased) 

John S. Barreau, Chrmn., NAACP Labor & Industry Com. (deceased) 

W. Kenneth Burke, Superintendent of Schools 

George E. Carignan, Director, New Bedford Joint Board, Textile Workers of 

America, CIO 
Miss Joy E. Colvin, Executive Director, YWCA 
Joseph Dawson, President, Knowles Loom Reed Works 
Miss Dorothy DeLoid, American Federation of Teachers, AFL 
Joseph A. DeSousa, Director, Adult Civic Education Department, New Bedford 

Schools 

Joseph P. Duchaine, President, My Bread Baking Company 
Alfred J. Gomes, Attorney 

Joseph J. Harney, Vice-President & General Manager. Firestone Textiles 

Harold Hurwitz, Attorney 

Walter S. MacPhail, Wamsutta Mills 

George F, McGovern, Works Manager, Revere Copper & Brass, Inc. 
C. Dudley Onley, Funeral Director 

Miss Susan E. Shennan, Director, Vocational Guidance and Placement, New 

Bedford Schools 
Joseph A. Sylvia, Jr.. Member, Massachusetts State Legislature 



16 



Fred W. Steele, Executive Secretary. New Bedford Cotton Manufacturers As 
sociation 

Dr. Xexoi'hon Thoma.s. President. National Association for the Advancement of 

Colored People 
Mrs. Francis S. Winsper. League of Women Voters 
Mrs. Anthony Zielinski. Board of Trustees, Vocational School 

Worcester 

Philip M. Morgan. Chmrmau, President. Morgan Construction Company 
Mrs. Laurence J. Bouchard 

Lyscom a. Bruce, Secretary, Community Chest of Worcester 
Rev. Hubert C. Callahan, S.J.. Holy Cross College 

Daniel J. Casale, Mgr., Worcester Office, Division of Employment Security 

Frederick H. Case, Jr., American Steel & Wire Company 

Admiral Wat Tyler Cluverius, President, Worcester Polytechnic Institute 

Gardener C. DeMallie. President, Family Service Organization 

Samuel J. Donnelly, AFL 

S. R. Dl'ryee. Treasurer, Wyman-Gordon Company 
Mrs. Katherine F. Erskine 

Mrs. Daniel Farbfr. President, Interracial Council of Worcester 

Joseph Goldberg, Worcester Area Chrmn., Anti-Defamation League Committee 

Mrs. Marion Hallock, President. League of Women Voters 

Milton P. Higgins, President, Norton Company 

Hon. Andrew B. Holmstrom. Mayor. City of Worcester 

Mrs. Charles J. Hudson. Member. League of Women Voters 

Howard B. Jefferson. President. Clark University 

Rabbi Joseph Klein. Temple Emmanuel 

Mrs. Thaddeus M. Krawczynski 

Mrs. Thomas L. Porter, President, Worcester Woman's Club 
Thomas F. Power. Superintendent of Schools 
A. Bradford Reed. President, Reed Rolled Thread Die Company 
George A. Roberts. Member, National Association for the Advancement of Col- 
ored People 

Miss Julia E. Robinson, Board of Public Welfare 

Miss Mildred L. Savacool, Director, YWCA 

Paul W. S"aulding, President, John C. Mpclnnes Company 

Mrs. Dorothy L. Salter, Salter Secretarial School 

Roy H. Stevens, Jr.. CIO, Federal Conciliation Service 

Judge Carl E. Wahlstrom 

Dr. Joseph Weinreb, Worcester Youth Center 

Rev. Chester A. Wheeler, President. Greater Worcester Area Council of 
Churches. 



Public Document 




EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

ANNUAL REPORT 

of the 

Massachusetts ; Commission 
Again st D iscrimination 

Mildred H. Mahoney, Chairman 
Judge A. K. Cohen, Commissioner 
Elwood S. McKenney, Commissioner 




November 30, 1951 to November 30, 1952 

41 Tremont Street 
Boston, Massachusetts 

Publication of this Document Approved by George J. Cronin, State Purchasing Agent 
lm-3-53-908967 



STWE mm Of lASSACHUSEHS 
APR 27 1953 
STATE H0yS.^^Bg6T0N 

MASS OFFlUALa 

INTRODUCTION 3 

ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES 4 

Complaints, Investigations and Studies 4 

Study of Apprentice Training 4 

Investigations - Public Housing 5 

Investigations - Age Amendment 6 

Investigations - Public Accommodations '7 

Complaints - Selected Case Histories - Fair Employment Practices .... 7 

Complaints - Selected Case Histories - Public Accommodations 9 

Survey of Cases 9 

Statistical Report 10 

EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES 10 

MCAD Council Programs 

Greater Boston 11 

New Bedford : 11 

Worcester 12 

Springfield 12 

Eastern States Exposidon :««..^.~.«.....~..«.«^ 12 

Conferences 13 

Surveys 14 

Teacher Application Forms 16 

Unit of Study 16 

National Origin Contacts in Boston 16 

Newsletter Toward Racial and Religious Understanding 17 

State Advisory Coimcil Membership 17 

Regional Council Membership 

Springfield IS 

Greater Boston 18 

New Bedford 18 

Worcester 19 





ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



MASSACHUSETTS COMMISSION AGAINST 



DISCRIMINATION 



Introduction 



This is the seventh report to the Governor and General Court of the 
program begun in 1946, which is being carried out day by day in the 
Commonwealth to eliminate racial and religious discrimination. 

The progress that is being made in combatting employment discrimination, 
outlined in this report, is typical of every state which has an enforceable 
fair employment practices law. Not only has this administrative agency 
afforded redress to aggrieved individuals, but also it has undertaken to dis- 
charge its responsibility of executing a program for the general welfare of 
the people. Representative of this latter effort are the studies of apprentice 
training now under way with the goal in mind of broadening the labor market; 
the surveys of employment patterns of respondents in the months following 
the complaint settlement, and the numerous educational methods, detailed 
in the second section, to create a more favorable climate of public opinion. 

Likewise, to forestall the filing of complaints against public housing author- 
ities and the attendant difficulties of conciliating this type of case, the 
Commission has taken the initiative in making recommendations to the indi- 
vidual housing boards so that the same standards should be applied in the 
first instance to every applicant for housing in Massachusetts regardless of 
race or religion. The results to date of this approach have justified the work 
which has gone into the examination of records, the conferences with housing 
officials and the efforts made to effect an appreciation in individual com- 
munities of the pioneering role the Commonwealth has assumed in the im- 
plementation of our civil rights. 

Massachusetts has been among the first states to spell out a guarantee 
of protection for the civil rights of its inhabitants and today has one of the 
most liberal anti-discrimination statutes in the nation. Its success in this 
comparatively new field of human rights, although by no means complete, is 
visible in our manufacturing plants and mercantile establishments and in the 
integration of people, without regard to race or creed, in public housing. 

Our compulsory fair employment statute has improved the economic status 
of thousands of members of minority groups. Determining just how much 
progress has been made by the beneficiaries of the law, however, is difficult 
and cannot be assessed except in a general way. One yardstick for measuring 
this progress brought about by the statute and the administration of anti- 
discrimination legislation has been found in the number of complaints 
alleging discrimination received by the Commission and the record of the 
Commission in alleviating any unlawful practices uncovered. The annual 
load of such complaints has been constant in recent years, years, incidentally, 
which have witnessed full employment and a slackening of competition for 
jobs. During the past year there were 222 matters of alleged discrimination 
in employment brought to the attention of the state agency. A little better 
than half of the complaints were found to be justified and were closed after 
conferences and conciliation removed the cause of complaint. 

Possibly a more accurate measurement of the agency's and the statute's 



4 

effectiveness can be found in reporting the results of a spot check made of 
a limited number of cases which came before the Commission in the past 
three years. In each of the 270 cases resurveyed the Commission earlier had 
found evidence of discrimination. While no new evidence of discrimination 
was found in the review of the 270 cases, a remarkable change of attitude 
on the part of employers toward persons of minority groups was discovered 
in 26 cases. These 26 employers, whose employees numbered more than 
17,000, had in the period since originally complained against increased the 
number of persons of minority groups in their payrolls from 124 to 1,770. 

While the number of complaints seems to have levelled off as the nation's 
production and payrolls remain at high levels, it is obvious that discrimination 
still exists in employment and only constant vigilance will root it out. It 
has been from the viewpoint of preventing unlawful discrimination, before it 
reached the complaint stage, that the Commission has initiated in the past 
several months a study of apprentice training programs. If a person because 
of his race or color cannot find the opportunity to gain apprentice training 
needed to fill a job in industry requiring mechanical skill, he will be lost to 
the state's labor market and denied his right to economic equality just as 
surely as if the discrimination was practiced at a later point in his career. 

Enforcement Activities 
Complaints, Investigations and Studies 

The Fair Employment Practice Act of 1946, as amended, authorizes the 
Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination (MCAD) to accept or 
initiate complaints based upon allegations of unlawful discrimination or segre- 
gation in employment or public housing or in the use of public accomodations. 
Such complaints may be filed against an employer, a labor union, an employ- 
ment agency, a public housing authority or a proprietor of certain places 
of public accomodation. 

In the period covered by this seventh annual report, November 30, 1951 — 
November 30, 1952, MCAD initiated, received or processed 222 matters involv- 
ing employment discrimination. Of these, 156 were based upon allegations 
of discrimination because of race, color, religious creed or ancestry. The 
remaining, 66, were based upon allegations of discrimination because of age. 

In addition, MCAD handled 41 matters involving allegations of discrimi- 
nation by places of public accommodation because of race or religion. 

Fifty-two per cent of complaints filed because of alleged discrimination 
in employment due to race, color, religious creed, national origin or ancestry 
were settled after investigation and conference and resulted in agreements 
which corrected an unlawful employment practice. An additional 38 per cent 
of these complaints were closed for lack of probable cause, and 10 per cent 
were withdrawn. 

In fifty-one per cent of the complaints and investigations concerning age 
some evidence of discrimination was found and corrected. 

In forty-seven per cent of the complaints and investigations concerning 
places of public accomodation, some evidence of discrimination was found 
and corrected. 

A study of the relationship of fair employment practices to apprentice 
training in Massachusetts, which was initiated this year, is described in the 
following section entitled, "Study of Apprentice Training." 

Study of Apprentice Training 

The MCAD has asked for and has received the unqualified cooperation of 
the Department of Labor and Industries, the Department of Education, the 
Boston School Department, the Boston Labor Committee to Combat Intoler- 
ance, and the chief representatives of a number of the largest labor organi- 
zations in the state to assist it in making a survey of the field of apprentice 
training. 



5 

An examination of apprentice training is prompted also by the persuasive 
conclusion that the best interests of industry and labor in Massachusetts vriW 
be furthered in the years to come by the availability in the labor market 
of skilled workers of all races and creeds. Specifically, the survey will cover 
the roles played by vocational guidance, organized labor and management, 
community service agencies and the state programs of apprenticeship training 
in the development and broadening of this field. So far, the emphasis of the 
study has been in the Greater Boston area. 

Investigations — Public Housing 

The amendment to Chapter 151B, which gave MCAI> the responsibility of 
eliminating discrimination or segregation in public housing, has been in 
effect now for two years. During that time MCAD has directed its efforts 
toward the change or modification of tenancy practices or procedures by 
individual housing boards so as to broaden the base of public participation in 
public housing without segregation. Specifically, MCAD has made a thorough 
examination of tenant selection procedures throughout the Commonwealth. 

With the cooperation of the federal housing agency (PHA) in this area, 
all inquiries into the racial character of applicants for public housing were 
removed this year from application forms now in use in Massachusetts. 

The successful experiment of non-segregation which was initiated by the 
Boston Housing Authority last year has now become the pattern of tenant 
occupancy in the capital city. Projects opened during the past year, reveal 
that tenants of different races and religions living in the same building can 
develop contented, democratic communities. Colored applicants were housed 
in the past year for the first time in vacancies occurring in previously all 
white projects. These developments since the MCAD report of 1951 have 
come about quietly and without public attention. 

"All that we are trying to do," explained James J. Mahar, Boston Housing 
Authority chairman, "is to continue in the same path that we have taken 
to keep away from discrimination once and for all." To aid the Boston 
agency, this year a score of ci\ac, veterans, labor, fraternal, and charitable 
organizations established and financed the Boston Citizens Council on Public 
Housing which undertook a public relations program to encourage housing 
applications by colored people and to further the objectives of fair tenancy 
in public housing. Among other things, it published and distributed 20,000 
brochures in various Boston communities listing qualifications for housing 
eligibility in both state and federal projects, including wage scales and in- 
formation as to where projects were being constructed and where interested 
persons should make application. 

Likewise in Cambridge, the racial pattern of tenant occupancy has under- 
gone an appreciable change since the introduction of public housing in 1938. 
The policy of - segregating Negro families has been discarded and consistent 
with the requirement of the 1950 amendment, the process of integration of 
white and Negro families is underway. The increased participation of Negro 
families in the housing program without segregation is e\ident according to 
MCAD's most recent examination, not only in the old Cambridge projects, 
but particularly in the new ones. Today, inquiries concerning race and 
nationality have been deleted from application forms and these, in turn, are 
filed according to need and without regard to the color of the applicant. As 
in Boston, the initial problem following the change of policy was to encourage 
Negro families to apply for housing units. This was accomplished through 
the efforts of various community agencies in Cambridge which publicized the 
availability of housing units without discrimination or segregation. As of 
this report, there is a noticeable increase in the number of Negro applicants. 

In Worcester, where all tenants are selected by an impartial board without 
awareness of the color, religion, name or address of the applicant, or any 
other information than the degree of need for housing, the major problem with 
respect to the 1950 amendment is again the failure of the Negro population to 



6 

participate so far in the housing program. Despite the fact that there is 
in Worcester, with its available and proposed housing, a considerable oppor- 
tunity for the tenancy and integration of Negro families, less than a dozen 
such families had applied for units during the five-month period prior to 
this report. The Worcester Housing Authority, however, is receiving at the 
present time the cooperation of various civic organizations and is making every 
effort to stimulate applications from eligible members of minority groups. 

In New Bedford, there is every evidence of a tenant selection policy con- 
sistent with the provision of the 1950 amendment against discrimination or 
segregation. In five of six projects there is participation by Negro families, 
12.87c of all families being non-white. There is no apparent segregation of 
families by color today in New Bedford. Applications of both white and Negro 
families are maintained in the same file and are processed according to 
eligibility. The New Bedford Housing Authority reports that it has en- 
countered no major difficulty in carrying out its present policy of integration 
consistent with the 1950 amendment. 

The first investigation by MCAD in Springfield revealed that the pattern 
of public housing had been developed substantially on a segregated basis. 
Since that time, there have been additional occupancies by Negro families. 
The Springfield Housing Authority has reported to MCAD that its policy 
of tenant selection since the 1950 amendment has been one of non-segregation. 
Perhaps the major obstacle to implementing this policy at the present time 
is the fact that there have been no new housing projects constructed and 
available to the public since 1950. It is expected that a gradual change 
will occur in Springfield as vacancies in old projects are filled, and that more 
evidence of the reported new policy will be available at such time as additional 
housing is built. ^ 

Investigations — Age Amendment 

During 1951 the question arose whether Chapter 697 of the Acts of 1950, 
amending Chapter 151B of the General Laws and prohibiting discrimination 
in employment against persons solely because they are between the ages 
of 45 and 65, applied to employees under pension or retirement plans which 
provide for their involuntary discharge between the same ages. 

To clarify this point, Senate No. 200 of 1950, was filed with the last 
session of the Legislature by a member of the public. Senate 200 would have 
amended Chapter 697 by the addition of the following sentence: — "This act 
shall not apply to termination of employment because of the terms or con- 
ditions of any retirement or pension plan." 

The proposed change was passed by the Legislature but vetoed by the 
Governor and his veto was sustained. 

Subsequently, MCAD published a memorandum setting forth its position 
on the effect of the age amendment on retirement or pension plans. Para- 
graph V and VI of this memorandum follow: 

V. "The effect of the refusal of the Legislature to finally enact into law 
the said Senate Bill, No. 200, impels this Commission to rule that 
it was the intention of the Legislature that the amendment as to 
discrimination on account of age should be effective even though there 
is a retirement or pension plan in existence calling for the retire- 
ment of an employee arriving at an age of between 45 and 65 years. 

VI. "Under the above circumstances and in view of the action of the 
Legislature in refusing to enact into law the said Senate Bill, 
No. 200, this Commission rules that any provision in a retirement 
or pension plan calling for retirement of employees who are between 
45 — 65 years of age is ineffective even though such retirement plan 
was made prior to the 1950 Act becoming a law. This Commission, 
therefore, rules that any such termination of employment of em- 
ployees between the ages of 45 — 65 is void and of no effect, and any 
action of termination of employment because of such a provision is a 



7 

violation of Chapter 151B, Section 4, Subdivision I, and is a violation 
of that law." 

(The above paragraphs are predicated on the assumption that any termination 
of employment is based solely on age.) 

Investigations — Public Accommodations 

In addition to its investigation of complaints (as illustrated in the section 
entitled, "Complaints — Selective Case Histories"), MCAD has continued to 
take such preventive steps as will eliminate discrimination by places of 
public accommodation consistent with the 1950 amendment. 

A survey of advertising literature of 250 resort hotels revealed that only 
two contained any objectionable language. In one case the brochure referred 
to "select clientele" and the other "restricted clientele." Both were corrected. 

To clarify the intention of hotels and resorts which have advertised in the 
past that churches were nearby, MCAD recommended that the phrase, "Places 
of worship nearby," be substituted for any similar advertisement which was 
subject to an ambiguous interpretation. Representatives of the various hotel 
associations in the Commonwealth presented this suggestion to their combined 
membership, w^hich offered no serious objection. Accordingly, it is expected 
that the advertising brochures of resorts in 1953 will be substantially free 
of material interpretable as discriminatory. To clear all doubts, reference to 
churches will probably be specific and will include synagogues where such 
are within reasonable distances. 

During the year MCAD received the assurances of the Boston Licensing 
Board that it will conduct a hearing on the suspension or revocation of the 
license of any place of public accommodation under its control which has been 
found, after a complaint to MCAD, to have been in violation of the 1950 
amendment. This procedure of inviting the cooperation of the licensors of such 
places in the Commonwealth to eliminate unlawful discrimination has been 
followed by MCAD in all cases where such action appears to be warranted. 

Complaints — Selected Case Histories — Fair Einiployment Practices 

1. 

In the spring a complaint was filed against a Boston distributing company 
alleging that the company had discharged eight female employees of the 
Catholic faith because they had left work, with permission, to attend after- 
noon devotional services on Good Friday. 

Two days later, following investigation of the complaint and conferences 
with the company, the latter acceded to the request of the investigating 
commissioner and reinstated the four permanent employees who had been 
dismissed. The four other complainants, who were extra help, would have 
been terminated at any rate for lack of work. (Case No. VII-19-RC) 

2. 

In June a complaint was filed charging discrimination because of color 
against a Boston restaurant which had advertised for a singing waiter with a 
facility in German. The complainant alleged that although he possessed the 
necessary qualifications, he was advised that he would not fit into the pattern 
of the restaurant because he was colored. 

After investigation and conference this case was conciliated with the agree- 
ment that the company would employ the complainant after Labor Day or 
in the first vacancy which occurred before that date. The complainant wrote 
later to the Commission, "I am writing to thank you once more for the very 
excellent job you did for me in the . . . case." (Case No. VII-39-C) 

3. 

In March MCAD conciliated a complaint filed by a colored automobile 
mechanic against a Boston motor car company alleging that he had been 



8 

discharged because of his color by the company's general manager. Investiga- 
tion of this complaint disclosed evidence that the general manager had 
found fault with the complainant without justification over a period of time; 
that he had moved the complainant away from fellow employees and cus- 
tomers; that he had been influenced by the racial prejudice of one of his 
foremen; and on the other hand an officer of the company had given letters 
of recommendation to the complainant with respect to his ability on three 
separate occasions. The answers of the general manager in behalf of the 
company were, in general, vague, inconsistent and contradictory and the 
circumstances of the case indicated that there was sufficient evidence to 
credit the complainant's allegations. 

After a finding and conferences, this complaint was conciliated with the 
agreement of the company to remit to the complainant the sum of $1,700 
as back pay for the time he had been unemployed because of the discharge. 
(Case No. VI-62-C) 

4. 

In October a complaint was filed against a Boston employment agency 
alleging that the respondent had refused to refer two colored girls to a 
company which, on the admission of the agency, had specified that it did 
not wish to have colored applicants referred. 

This complaint was conciliated after investigation supported the allegations 
of the girls, with the agreement of the employment agency to refer them 
immediately to the listed vacancies. Having been advised of the complaint 
against the agency, the company interviewed the girls at once and hired 
them. (Case No. VII-56-C) 

5. 

In November MCAD conciliatexj a complaint which had been filed against 
a large roadside restaurant by a young colored man who had applied for a 
job as a waiter in response to a newspaper ad. 

The respondent employed a staff of white waiters and had never hired 
colored help outside the kitchen department. After investigation had substan- 
tiated the charges of the complaint, the respondent agreed at a conciliation 
conference to employ the complainant on a full time basis in the next vacancy 
which occurred; and further agreed to instruct its supervisory personnel that 
there should be no such future discrimination in hiring. (Case No. VII-41-C) 

6. 

A complaint was filed in January by a young colored woman against a 
Boston department store charging that a department head of the company 
had refused to employ her on the ground that she did not want to mix 
colored and white employees. 

Investigation revealed that the employment agency which had made the 
referral had no previous knowledge of such preference and would not have 
accepted the order under such conditions. When investigation corroborated 
the allegations of the complaint, and after conferences with the investigating 
commissioner, the company relieved the department head from the duty of 
interviewing any applicants in the future. 

In addition, the company reimbursed the complainant for the time she was 
unemployed because of the action charged; and took steps to instruct all 
personnel with authority to interview and hire with regards to the provisions 
of the fair employment practice law. (Case No. VII-3-C) 

7. 

Alleging that she had been refused a job as a secretary, a young colored 
girl filed a complaint in July against a Boston clothing company. She had 
been referred to the company by a reputable secretarial school only to learn 



9 

that her application was being ignored and the company was advertising 
after she had applied. 

Investigation disclosed that a supervisor of the company had actually re- 
jected the complainant for reasons which were not credible and which indicated 
in fact that the refusal to hire had been an act of color discrimination. 

Accordingly, this complaint was conciliated with the assurance of the 
company that steps would be taken to eliminate such discrimination in the 
future; and further, the complainant, having been hired in the meantime as 
secretary to the president of a large business firm, that the respondent would 
reimburse her two week's wages for time lost as a gesture of good faith. 
(Case No. VI-45-C) 

Complaints — Selected Case Histories — Public Accommodations 

1. 

In July a complaint was filed against the proprietor of a group of cabins 
on Cape Cod charging color discrimination and alleging that the respondent 
had refused to rent a cabin to four colored travelers from New Jersey. In 
answer to the complaint, the proprietor claimed that the cabin had been 
refused because it had been reserved for the entire week following. Investi- 
gation, however, revealed that said cabin had been rented at least three 
different times in the week following, and with other evidence warranted a 
finding in favor of the complainants. 

Accordingly, the complaint was conciliated with the agreement that 
respondent send letters of apology and that it agree in writing to strict 
adherence to the statute in the future. In addition, MCAD notified the licensor 
and the Chief of Police of the district of the violation, and took steps to 
acquaint all cabin owners in the section of the requirments of the statute. 
(Case No. PI-5-R) 

2. 

In July a complaint was filed by a New York social worker against a 
Cape Cod motor court charging that he and his wife had been refused 
reservations because of color. The respondent answered that in fact there had 
been no reservation and that the cabin in question had been rented prior to 
the arrival of the complainant and his wife. 

Investigation, however, revealed that there had been a reservation and 
there was sufficient evidence to indicate that the complainant had arrived 
at the motor court at least a half hour before the cabin had been rented. 

Accordingly, this complaint was conciliated with the agreement that re- 
spondent would submit a letter of apology to the complainant and a statement 
to the Commission of adherence; and that it would reimburse the com- 
plainant in the amount of fifty dollars for his expenses. In addition, MCAD 
notified the licensor and the C!hief of Police of the district and took steps 
to inform all similar licensees of the section concerning their obligations 
under the statute. (Case No. PII-6-C) 

Survey of Cases 

In 1952, MCAD surveyed complaints of employment discrimination settled 
after investigation, conference and conciliation during the period of the last 
three years (1950-1952). The following figures indicate the increase in various 
minority groups employed in some of the firms which were respondents 
in complaints. 

Number of respondent companies checked 270 

Number of companies showing increase in 

employment of minority group members 

following complaint - 26 

Total employed in all 26 companies 17,370 



10 

Total number of minority group members 
employed in 13 of the 26 companies, 
before complaint 

Total number of minority group members 
employed in remaining 13 of the 26 
companies, before complaint 

Total number of minority group members 

employed in all 26 companies, after cases 

STATISTICAL REPORT 
November 10, 1946 to November 30, 1952 



Complaints : 

Initiated and received 814 

Closed after formal hearing 1 

Closed after investigation and conference 446 

Closed for lack of probable cause 272 

Closed for lack of jurisdiction 31 

Withdrawn 30 

Pending investigation and conference 34 

Investigations Without Formal Complaint : 

Initiated by the Commission 336 

Closed after investigation and conference 266 

Closed for lack of probable cause 60 

Transferred to complaint 3 

Pending investigation and conference 7 

Nature of Complaints and Investigations : 

Based upon alleged color discrimination 640 

Based upon alleged religious discrimination 183 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of race 35 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of national origin 104 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of ancestry 12 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of age 176 

Type of Complaints : 

Against employers 787 

Against employment agencies 79 

Against labor unions 27 

Against employees 3 

Others 254 



The following paragraphs may be found in the Commission's RULES OF 
PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE of November 19, 1947: 

Case dismissed for lack of probable cause means that "if the Investigating 
Commissioner, after investigation, is of the opinion that the respondent has 
not engaged and is not engaged in any unlawful employment practice he may 
order the complaint dismissed for lack of probable cause, and entry of such 
disposition shall be made on the records of the Commission." 

Case closed after investigation and conference means that "if, after investi- 
gation and conference, the Investigating Commissioner is satisfied that any 
unlawful employment practice of the respondent will be eliminated, he may, 
with the consent of the complainant, treat the complaint as conciliated, and 
entry of such disposition shall be made on the records of the Commission." 

Educational Activities 

The Commission, through its educational work, tries to build up general 
acceptance of the law. Voluntary compliance makes complaints unnecessary. 
The following activities illustrate this educational approach. The regional 



. 124 

. 

1,770 



11 

Councils, groups of civic minded leaders in the community serving on a purely 
voluntary basis, have given most effective help. 

MCAD COUNCIL PROGRAMS 
November, 1951 — November, 1952 
Boston Council 

Chairman: Mr. Clark E. Woodward, Senior Vice-President, Liberty Mutual 
Insurance Company presiding: 

Voted: Survey of high school students placing special emphasis on 
the status of Negro students during their high school course and the jobs 
that they receive when they have graduated. Survey to be made with the 
cooperation of guidance teachers. 

Reported: Opportunity for the MCAD to gain use of car cards adver- 
tising its work through the cooperation of the Anti-Defamation League. 

At the State House, Boston, in May, 1952, Chairman Woodward presided 
over the council-sponsored institute on "The Interrelationship of Civic Edu- 
cation, Education for Better Human Relations and Intercultural Education." 
Participants in the panel discussion: 
Thomas Curtin, State Director, American Citizenship 
Charles Lattimer, Teacher, Social Studies, Brookline High School 
Jane McCabe, Teacher, Social Studies, Brookline High School 
Carol Smith, Dean of Freshman Girls, Cambridge High & Latin School 
Grace Whittaker, Senior Assistant, Girl's Trade High School, Boston 
Representatives of public and private human relations agencies and of many 
school systems were present. Following is a list of them: 

D. Leo Daley, Ass't Supt., Boston Public Schools; Miss Mary K. Fitzgerald, 
member, Boston School Committee; Thomas D. Ginn, Director, Vocational 
Guidance Department, Boston Public Schools; Dr. Louise E. McLaughlin, Vo- 
cational Guidance Department, Boston Public Schools; Mrs. Edna M. Brooks, 
American Legion Auxiliary; Miss Miriam Kallen, Ass't. Professor, Boston 
Teachers College; Gunnar E. Haugh, Cambridge Public Schools; Mrs. Munroe 
Day, Cambridge Community Relations Committee; Mrs. Thomas W. Little, Jr., 
Boston YWCA Public Affairs Committee; Mrs. Emily K. Johnson, Cambridge 
Civic Unity Committee; W. P. Nelson, John Hancock Life Insurance Co., 
W. R. Dangelmayer, N. E. Telephone & Telegraph Co.; Henry C. Berlin, 
Mayor's Committee on Civic Improvement of Boston; Miss Alice W. O'Connor, 
Supv. of Social Service, State Department of Americanization & Immigration; 
Dr. Franklin P. Hawkes, Director, Fair Educational Practices; Robert E. 
Segal, Executive Director, Jewish Community Council of Metropolitan Boston; 
Leonard T. Peters, Peters Employment Agency; Miss Viola Leventhal, Edu- 
cation Director, Anti-Defamation League; Charles Peltier, Dir., Social Studies, 
Newton High School; Mrs. Catherine T. Johnson, Exec. Dir., Cambridge Civic 
Unity Committee; Paul Simons, Chairman, Brookline Community Relations 
Committee; Mrs. Sara Ehrmann, Brookline Community Relations Committee; 
Prof. Mary Ellen Goodman, Wellesley College; Francis Hurwitz, Exec. Dir., 
N. E. Division, Nat'l Conference of Christians & Jews; Miss Jean Fairfax, 
American Friends Service Committee; Mr. and Mrs. Lester Glasser; Mary A. 
Brosnahan, Revere Public Schools; Mae L. Shapiro, Chelsea School Dept.; 
Gerald Berlin, New England Regional Counsel, American Jewish Congress; 
Rheabie M. Edwards, Boston NAACP; Mrs. Julia P. Gold, Director, Divi- 
sion 5, Mass. Parent-Teacher Ass'n.; Rev. George L. Paine; Michael Sage, 
Dir., American Jewish Committee; Julius Bernstein, Exec. Sec'y., Boston 
Labor Committee to Combat Intolerance; Miss Gladys Klitzman, Workmen's 
Circle; Jack Joslow, Exec. Dir., New England Region, American Jewish Con- 
gress; Miss Jane Saddler, Exec. Sec'y., Cambridge Community Relations 
Committee; Edward L. Cooper, Exec. Sec'y., Urban League; Mrs. Florence 
LeSueur, NAACP; Miss Margaret Deastlov; Mrs. Mary Eubanks; Mrs. Esther 
Racoosiu, Wayland Public Schools. 

New Bedford Council 
Chairman: Mr. Anthony J. Snyder, Vice-President and Assistant to the 
President, Morse Twist Drill & Machine Company presiding: 

Voted: Council sponsorship of MCAD Unit of Study, prepared by the 
Commission and the Civic Education Project of Cambridge for use in the 



12 

senior high schools of Massachusetts. 

Survey of high school students placing special emphasis on the status 
of Negro students during their high school course and the jobs they receive 
when they have graduated. Survey to be made with the cooperation of 
guidance teachers. 

Council members to take car cards advertising the Commission for 
placement in: mills, department stores, labor unions and in busses of the 
Union Street Railway. 

Survey of places of public accommodation. List of representative places 
of public accommodation to be compiled by a Council member. 

Worcester Council 
Chairman: Mr. Philip M. Morgan, President Morgan Construction Company 
presiding: 

Voted: Survey of high school students placing special emphasis on the 
status of Negro students during their high school course and the jobs that 
they receive when they have graduated. Survey to be made with the 
cooperation of guidance teachers. 

Survey of public accommodations. Selection of hotels and restaurants 
for the survey to be made by a Council member. 

Springfield Council 
Co-Chairmen: Mr. Roger L. Putnam, Dir., Economic Stabilization Agency; 
Chairman of the Board, Package Machinery Company; 

Miss Alice L. Halligan, Dir., Bureau of Guidance, Placement 
and Adult Education, Springfield Public Schools. 

Voted : Surv^ey of high school students placing special emphasis on the 
status of Negro students during their high school course and the jobs that 
they receive when they have graduated. Survey to be made with the 
cooperation of guidance teachers. 

Re-check of previous survey of public housing. 

Reported: The joint cooperation of the Fair Education Practices Direc- 
tor, MCAD and MCAD Councils, and the Anti-Defamation League in the 
project of placing car cards. 

A Council member's success in placing car cards in H'olyoke, North- 
ampton and Greenfield. 

Guidance Survey relative to High School Students 

Public Housing Survey 

MCAD "Clinic" 

Council member's report on Police Dept. Human Relations Problems 
"Clinic" held May 5 — 9 through the cooperation of the Springfield 
Council, city officials and the MCAD at Springfield City Hall. Four staff 
members of the Commission manned an office where people in the Spring- 
field area were invited to come and lodge complaints or make inquiries 
about the law. Two radio broadcasts and daily newspaper stories pub- 
licized the "Clinic." 

EASTERN STATES EXPOSITION: September 14-21, 1952 

The Eastern States Exposition at West Springfield, Massachusetts, is one 
of the largest fairs held in the eastern part of the country. The fair, held 
this year for a full week, was open to the public from nine o'clock in the 
morning to nine o'clock at night. The Director of the Fair Educational Prac- 
tices Act, Dr Franklin P. Hawkes; Mrs. Mildred H. Mahoney, Chairman; 
Mr. Leonard V. Avery, Executive Secretary of the MCAD; MCAD staff mem- 
bers and volunteers from its Springfield Council were in attendance during 
the week. 

Official estimates of the crowds were: Sunday, September 14th — 78,000; 
Wednesday, September 17th — 58,132; Saturday, September 20th — over 78,000. 
The officials at the Massachusetts Building, where the MCAD Fair Educational 



13 

Practices exhibit was housed, said that approximately 65% of the gate on 
any given day passed through the Massachusetts Building. Placement of the 
booth describing Massachusetts Civil Rights Laws was excellent. 

On six of the days, through the cooperation of local school officials, student 
activities built around the laws and the philsophy behind the laws were 
carried on at the booth. Young people from the sixth grade through senior 
high school designed and made charts on the religions represented in their 
community. Dolls of different nations, a map representing the United States 
and the many nationalities found here, and a chart showing the races of 
mankind, were also presented. A group of four new citizens — two from Italy, 
one from Canada and one from Russia — brought to the booth by their 
teachers from the Adult Civic Education Dept. of West Springfield, showed, 
with handicrafts, part of their contribution to America. 

Members of the Western Massachusetts Regional Office of the Anti- 
Defamation League of B'nai B'rith helped most appreciably in supplying 
thousands of pieces of literature highlighting the background of the civil 
rights laws. They also provided volunteer workers to help staff the booth 
and located furniture to be used in the interior of the booth. 

Teachers, students and the general public requested information about civil 
rights legislation and materials were quickly gathered from the literature 
table as rapidly as they were placed there. 

Innumerable comments indicated that this venture into adult education at 
the fair was worth the time and effort of the two cooperating state agencies. 

As an educational device, speeches made by Commissioners and members 
of the Commission's staff are important. Reported here are some of the 
groups reached in this manner during the past year: 

Boston College; Boston University; Holy Cross; Springfield Police Dept.; 
Northeastern University; Cambridge Community Center; Boston Mas- 
sacre Citizen's Committee; Goodwill Dinner - Old South Church; Clinton 
Women's Club; Roxbury Memorial High School; Teachers' Committee, 
Boston Public Schools; Copley Methodist Church; Cambridge Community 
Inter-Group Unit; Boston League of Women Voters; Public Affairs 
Committee, Boston YWCA; Kiwanis Club of Hyde Park; Kiwanis Club 
of Boston; Beverly College Club; Interfaith Group Seminar; Brookline 
Conference on Community Relations; United Community Service Work- 
shop on Programs & Skills for the Group Leader in a Diverse Com- 
munity; Boston Labor Committee to Combat Intolerance; Vocational 
Guidance Department - Boston Public Schools; Workmen's Circle; New 
Boston Committee; Massachusetts Federation of Teachers - Citizenship 
Conference; Quincy High School; Boston University Graduate School; 
Brandeis University; Andover High School; Social Workers Conference - 
Maiden Community Council; Catholic Interracial Council, New York; 
Quota Club - Boston; Council of Church Women, Old South Church, 
Springfield; Brotherhood Night, Lincoln-Eliot School, Newton; Scopus 
Lodge of Masons; Massachusetts Council of Administrative Women in 
Education; Cambridge Civic Unity Committee; Radcliffe Management 
Training Program; Massachusetts Hotel Association. 
Toward the close of the year 1951-1952, numerous requests for information 
from local college debating teams, and from out-of-state colleges and univer- 
sities came to the Commission as a result of the 1952 college debate question: 
"Should there be a National FEPC?". 

CONFERENCES 

The Commission works in close cooperation with many groups, as is in- 
dicated by the fact that conferences have been held with the following 
individuals and groups: 

Mr. Thomas Heffeman, Executive Secretary, Mayor's Committee on 

Civic Improvement, Boston 
Mr. Thomas Curtin, Director of American Citizenship, State Department 

of Education 
American Jewish Committee 
American Jewish Congress 
Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith 



14 

Jewish Community Council of Metropolitan Boston 
Representatives from the First National Bank 

Mr. William Dabney, Race Relations Officer, Public Housing Authority 
Boston Licensing Board 

Mr. Charles Coyle, Executive Secretary, Massachusetts Hotel Association 
Mr. John Peterson, President, Cape Cod" Association 

Cambridge Housing Authority J 
Civil Liberties Union 

Mr. Hubert L. Connor, Director, Mass. Division of Apprentice Training 
Mr. Daniel Bloomfield, Manager, Boston Retail Trade Board 
Mr. Ray Walker, Publisher, "Recommendations for Resorts" 
State Advisory Council, Mass. Commission Against Discrimination 
Members of State and Local Vocational Guidance Departments 
Massachusetts State Employment Service 
Associated Industries of Massachusetts 

Miss Alice W. O'Connor, Supervisor, Mass. Division of Immigration 

and Americanization 
Sgt. Abraham F. Morse, Boston Police Department 
Civic Education Project, Cambridge 
Boston Labor Committee to Combat Intolerance 
Jewish Vocational Guidance Service 
Mr. B. W. Kohl, President, Boston Central Labor Union 
Mr. Harry Grages, Secretary-Treasurer, Boston Central Labor Union 
Mr. Joseph Cass, Director, CIO Political Action Committee 
Mr. Herman Koster, Chairman, Education Committee, Boston Central 

Labor Union 

Mr. Ernest A. Johnson, Secretary-Treasurer, Boston Building & Con- 
struction Trades Council 

Intergroup Relations Council (an organization of more than thirty 
heads of community relations organizations) 

Mrs. Thomasina W. Norford, Minority Groups Consultant, U. S. Dept. 
of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security 

SURVEYS 

Besides the educational surveys conducted through local councils, the Com- 
mission itself conducted two surveys of interest. 

Public Opinion Survey 

In its own "public opinion survey" sent out July 11, 1952, the Massachusetts 
Commission Against Discrimination tested its reputation among those who. 
had come in contact with the agency as respondents or had been contacted 
through educational surveys. 

The following letter which was sent by Mildred H. Mahoney, Chairman, to 
800 companies, labor unions and employment agencies, read: 

"The Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination has now been in 
operation almost six years. We are very appreciative of the cooperation 
we have received from the three groups to which we are addressing this 
letter: employers, labor unions and employment agencies. 

"We feel that on the whole we have done a good job. Obviously, however, 
we cannot be completely objective in appraising ourselves. We are sending 
you accordingly the brief questionnaire enclosed and ask you to be candid 
in your comments. The questionnaire may be signed or unsigned as you 
prefer." The questionnaire follows: 

"I. In your opinion is there discrimination in Massachusetts in the 
employment of members of so-called minority groups? 

Much Little None Do not know 

II. Has the functioning of the Fair Employment Law opened up more 
opportunities for members of the above-named groups? 

Yes No Do not know 

III. If the answer is in the affirmative has this been brought about 
1. Through the processing of complaints? 
Through the Commission's educational activities? 
Do you feel there is voluntary compliance with the law? 
Much Little None Do not know 



15 

IV. Have you noticed any changes in "patterns of employment" (Illus- 
tration of "patterns of employment" — Negro employees limited 
to running elevators despite other capabilities) 

If so, where 

V. Have you noticed any change in the attitude of union members in 
respect to the admission to membership of persons in the so-called 
minority groups? 

More acceptance Less Acceptance Do not know 

Have you noticed any change in the attitude of employees toward 
other employees of a so-called minority group in day to day work- 
ing relationships? 

More friendly Less friendly Do not know 

that you feel disposed to make concerning the work of the Com- 
VI. In general. Please write any statement favorable or otherwise 
that you feel disposed to make concerning the work of the Com- 
mission." 

Twenty-one of the 800 questionnaires sent out were returned because of 
obsolete addresses. The total number of questionnaires received up to date 
number 136. 

These 136 questionnaires, upon analysis, reveal some interesting views on 
MCAD's operation and reception by those affected by the law. Here are some 
sets of figures: 

Total signed questionnaires returned 116 

Total unsigned questionnaires returned 20 

Those questionnaires which could be traced as "case contacts" (reference 
is made here to employers, labor unions, and employment agencies against 
whom formal complaints have been processed) or "educational contacts" 
(reference is made here to surveys or other contacts conducted on an educa- 
tional basis) numbered 

Case contacts 42 

Educational contacts 70 

Of the 116 signed replies 

Very favorable 28 

Favorable 49 

Noncommittal 31 

Slightly critical 7 

Very critical 1 

One "very favorable" opinion stated: "The Commission has done a re- 
markably fine job administering a law which basically calls for fairness and 
a cooperative effort to be effective at all." 

An opposing opinion was, "I feel that you cannot legislate attitudes 
of people." 

Of the 20 unsigned replies 

Most favorable 8 

Noncommittal 6 

Most unfavorable 6 

An unsigned "most favorable" opinion was: "I feel the present Commission 
should be congratulated. There has been a remarkable improvement of work- 
ing conditions for minority groups in the state. I'm all for it." 

Conversely, a "most unfavorable" opinion was: "So-called minority groups 
have merely exchanged places with every consideration being given the 
so-called minority and the little given the so-called majority." 

The ratio of signed to unsigned replies was better than 5 to 1. Reaction 
breakdowns concerning 

Case contacts 

Total 42 

Very favorable 11 

Favorable 21 

Noncommittal 7 

Slightly critical 3 



16 



Educational contacts 

Total 

Very favorable 

Favorable 

Noncommittal 

Slightly critical 



70 



17 
28 
23 
2 



Teacher Application Forms — Public Schools 

Mrs. Mildred H. Mahoney, Chairman of the MCAD, sent the following letter 
to 222 school superintendents asking them to send in their application forms 
for teaching positions: 

"During the summer this Commission is reviewing a number of application 
forms. We would appreciate it if you will send us the form or forms currently 
used by your school department in the hiring of teachers." 

Total forms sent in 178 

Containing no violations 123 

Containing violations, due chiefly to inquiry about place of birth, now 
in process of correction 55 

Unit of Study — Massachusetts Senior High Schools 

The Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination and the Civic Edu- 
cation Project of Cambridge, Massachusetts, prepared a unit of study for 
use in senior high schools called "Discrimination — Danger to Democracy." 

Commissioner John J. Desmond, Jr., of the State Department of Education, 
sent out the unit of study to all school superintendents in the State, under 
cover of the following letter: 



To Superintendents of Schools o Principals of High Schools: 

A teaching unit on certain civil rights entitled DISCRIMINATION — 
DANGER TO DEMOCRACY has been prepared for the senior high schools 
by the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination, under the direction 
of the Chairman, Mrs. Mildred H. Mahoney with the cooperation of the Civic 
Education Project. Copies of this unit will be mailed to you following the 
receipt of this letter. 

The unit of study, similar in purpose to the suggested teaching unit on 
Fair Educational Practices, issued by the Dept. of Education, will require a 
time allotment of two weeks and is designed to give students and teachers 
a comprehension of the Massachusetts Statute against discrimination. Its 
purpose will be to develop understanding, appreciations and attitudes which 
will be consistent with what we have always recognized in the schools of 
the Commonwealth as proper civic behavior. 

The voluntary compliance with the laws against discrimination by the 
citizens of the Commonwealth has been most gratifying and is a clear indica- 
tion that in Massachusetts where liberty had its birth, we continue to be 
leaders in the matter of equality and justice for all. The new program in 
Civic Education now being developed under Director Thomas J. Curtin will be 
an appropriate place for this new unit of instruction which I wish to 
commend to you for your favorable consideration. 



NATIONAL ORIGIN CONTACTS IN BOSTON 

Very few complaints have been received by MCAD where national origin 
was cited as the basis of the discriminatory act. It has been felt that this 
paucity of complaints is due partly at least to lack of knowledge of the 
workings and purposes of MCAD on the part of persons of diverse national 
origins. As a result of this belief, an attempt was made in the Spring of 1952 
to contact national origin groups in the Boston area. 

A great diversity of national origin groups were represented in the final 
list — Lithuanians, Germans, Greeks, Italians, Czechs, Syrians, Armenians, 
Polish, Portuguese, and Chinese. 



October 21, 1952 



Sincerely yours, 
/s/ John J. Desmond, Jr. 
Commissioner of Education 



17 

Perhaps the most successful interviews were had with the foreign language 
press. A feature column on MCAD appeared in "II Progresso" an Italian 
weekly Another feature appeared in the magazine section of the "Polish 
Daily Courier" a paper with nation-wide distribution. The magazine "Sons of 
Italy" and the "Armenian Newspaper" have promised to publish articles 
about MCAD. 

A number of visits were made to Chinatown. It was the feeling of 
the Field Representative that it was most difficult to interest the Chinese- 
Americans in any type of public assistance. 

The International Institute of Boston was most cooperative. Twenty-odd 
people, each representing a national origin club at the Institute were con- 
tacted. The Institute promised to refer instances of discrimination to MCAD 
and a cooperative committee was set up to mitigate the embarrassment of 
persons in their organization who encounter discrimination and are reluctant 
to report it. 

Eight foreign language newspapers and 72 clubs and associations were 
reached either through individual visits or correspondence. 

Newsletter Toward Racial and Religious Understanding 

In its quarterly publication "Newsletter Toward Racial and Religious Under- 
standing" the MCAD reports developments of significance with respect to 
the administration of its own laws and invites reports from 50 community 
organizations throughout the state, both public and private, which are working 
toward racial and religious understanding. 

Responses from these outside agencies in the form of contributions to each 
issue of the Newsletter range between 20 and 30. The readers of the pub- 
lication keep abreast of developments among human relations agencies in 
this state and know more about the programs of various agencies because 
reports are easily available in this quarterly. 

OTHER PUBLICATIONS 

Annual Report - 11/30/50—11/30/51 (printed) 

What is the Fair Employment Practice Law? (printed) 

An Act Providing for a Fair Employment Practice Law 

(Chap. 368, printed) 
An Act Changing the Name of the Mass. FEP Commission 

(Chap. 479, printed) 
An Act Relative to Discrimination Against Employees . . . Between 45 

and 65 years of Age (Chap. 697, printed) 
Discrimination — Danger to Democracy, Unit of Study (printed) 
Summary of the Laws Against Discrimination (printed) 

MCAD - poster size 

MCAD - small size 
Policies, Commission Against Discrimination (mimeographed) 
Memorandum of Position of the MCAD, On Age Law (mimeographed) 
Summary of the Activities of the Fair Employment Practice Commis- 
sion, February 1950 (mimeographed) 
Summary of the Activities of the MCAD, 1950-1951 (mimeographed) 
Summary of the Activities of the MCAD, June 1952, (mimeographed) 
Excerpt from the Law Against Discrimination - Public Accommodations 

August 1950, (mimeographed) 
Rules of Practice and Procedure (mimeographed) 

State Advisory Council Membership 

John J. Desmond, Jr., Chairman, Commissioner of Education 
Rt. Rev. Robert P. Barry, LLD., St. Clement's Church, Trustee of Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital 

Thomas H. Carens, Vice-President in charge of Public Relations, Boston 
Edison Company 

Charles C. Dasey, Retired, Manager Cunard White Star, Ltd. 

Judge Jacob J. Kaplan, former President, Boston Bar Association 



18 

Regional Councils Membership 

Springfield 

Roger L. Putnam, Co-Chairman, Director, Economic Stabilization Agency; 

Chairman of the Board, Package Machinery Company 
Miss Alice L. Halligan, Co-Chairman, Director, Bureau of Guidance, Place- 
ment and Adult Education, Springfield School Department 
Mrs. Richard B. Anderson, League of Women Voters 
Archie Burack, Member, Springfield City Council 
Thomas G. Carr, President, Bay Path Secretarial School 
Maurice M. Chaffin, President, Bay State Thread Works 
George C. Gordon, National Association for the Advancement of Colored 
People 

James H. Higgins, former President, Springfield City Council; holder of 
Pinchon Award 

Harry P. Hogan, Business Agent, Carpenters* District Council, AFL 
Dr. Garry deN. Hough, Jr. 

Robert W. Hutton, Secretary, Western Mass. Employers' Association 
Raymond T. King, Attorney 

Mrs. Thelma L. Keitlen, Community Consultant, Western Massachusetts 

Regional Office, Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith 
Dr. Howard P. Kennedy 

Alexander B. Mapp, Executive Secretary, Urban League of Springfield, 
Incorporated 

Mrs. Albert G. Rivett, Parent-Teachers Association 

Frederick B. Robinson, Director, Springfield Museum of Fine Arts 

James J. Shea, President, Milton Bradley Company 

Charles Vivenzio, Member, Local 202, lUE-CIO 

Boston 

Clark E. Woodward, Chairman, Senior Vice-President, Liberty Mutual In- 
surance Company 
Norman H. Abbott, Director, Boston University Placement Service 
J. William Belanger, President, Mass. State CIO 

Robert G. Bleakney, Vice-President, Personnel, New England Telephone & 
Telegraph Co. 

Salvatore Camelio, Secretary-Treasurer, Mass. State CIO, District Director, 
United Rubber Workers, CIO 

Abram T. Collier, Second Vice-President, John Hancock Mutual Life 
Insurance Company 

Norris G. Davis, Member, Business and Professional Men's Club 

Bradley Dewey, President, Dewey and Almy Chemical Company 

Harry Grages, Advisor to Labor Division, NAACP, Secretary and Business 
Agent, Boston Central Labor Union 

Harold D. Hodgkinson, Vice-President & General Manager, William Filene's 
Sons Co., Chairman of the Board, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston 

Michael T. Kelleher, Vice-President, Marsh & McLennon, Inc.; Fire Com- 
missioner, City of Boston 

Kenneth J. Kelley, Secretary-Treasurer, Mass. State Federation of Labor, 
Legislative Agent 

Thomas A. Pappas, President, Pappas Wholesale Liquor Company 

Col. Leonard T. Peters, Peters Employment Service 

F. Frank Vorenberg, President, Gilchrist Company; Vice-President, United 
Community Services, Trustee of Five Cents Savings Bank 

New Bedford 

Anthony J. Snyder, Chairman, Vice-President and Assistant to the Presi- 
dent, Morse Twist Drill and Machine Company 
Judge Samuel Barnet, Director, Jewish Community Center 
W. Kenneth Burke, Superintendent of Schools 

George E. Carignan, Director, New Bedford Joint Board, Textile Workers 

of America, CIO 
Miss Joy E. Colvin, Executive Director, YWCA 
Joseph Dawson, President, Knowles Loom Reed Works 
Joseph A. DeSousa, Director, Adult Civic Education, New Bedford School 
Department 



19 

Joseph P. Duchaine, President, My Bread Baking Company 
Alfred J. Gomes, Attorney 

Joseph J. Harney, Vice-President and General Manager, Firestone Textiles 
Harold Hurwitz, Attorney, Past State President, Junior Chamber of 

Commerce 
Walter S. MacPhail, Wamsutta Mills 

George F, McGovern, Works Manager, Revere Copper & Brass, Inc. 
C. Dudley Onley, Secretary, New Bedford NAACP 

Miss Susan E. Shennan, Director, Guidance and Placement, New Bedford 

School Department 
Hon. Joseph A. Sylvia, Jr., Member, Massachusetts State Legislature 
Mrs. Dorothy D. Stahre, Principal, Cedar Grove School 
Fred W. Steele, Executive Secretary, New Bedford Cotton Manufacturers 

Association 

Dr. Xenophon Thomas, National Association for the Advancement of 
Colored People 

Philip F. Tripp, Executive Director, New Bedford Housing Authority 
Mrs. Francis S. Winsper, League of Women Voters 

Mrs. Anthony Zielinski, Member, Polish National Alliance; Member, Vet- 
erans' Auxiliary, Polish World War Veterans 

• Worcester 

Philip M. Morgan, Chairman, President, Morgan Construction Company 
Mrs. Laurence J. Bouchard 

Lysom A. Bruce, Executive Secretary, Community Chest and Council of 
Worcester 

Rev. Hubert C. Callahan, S.J., Holy Cross College 

Daniel J. Casale, Mgr., Worcester Office, Division of Employment Security 
Frederick H. Case, Jr., American Steel & Wire Company 
Admiral Wat Tyler Cluverius, President, Worcester Polytechnic Institute 
(deceased) 

Gardener G. DeMallie, President, Family Service Organization 
Samuel J. Donnelly, AFL 

S. R. Duryee, Treasurer, Wyman-Gordon Company 
Mrs. Katherine F. Erskine, Member, Worcester School Committee 
Mrs. Daniel Farber, President, Interracial Council of Worcester 
Joseph Goldberg, Worcester Area Chairman, Anti-Defamation League 
Committee 

Mrs. Marion Hallock, Past President, League of Women Voters 
Milton P. Higgins, President, Norton Company; President, Community 
Chest 

Hon. Andrew B. Holmstrom, Mayor, City of Worcester; Vice-President, 

Norton Company 
Mrs. Charles J. Hudson, League of Women Voters 
Dr. Howard B. Jefferson, President, Clark University 
Rabbi Joseph Klein, Temple Emmanuel 
Mrs. Thaddeus M. Krawczynski 

Miss Anna Mays, President, National Association for the Advancement of 
Colored People 

Mrs. Thomas L. Porter, Past President, Worcester Woman's Club 
Thomas F. Power, Superintendent of Schools 
A. Bradford Reed, President, Reed Rolled Thread Die Company 
George A. Roberts, Member, National Association for the Advancement 
of Colored People 

Miss Julia E. Robinson, Department of Public Welfare, City of Worcester 
Miss Mildred L. Savacool, Executive Director, YWCA 
Paul W. Spaulding, President, John C. Maclnnes Company 
Mrs. Dorothy L. Salter, Salter Secretarial School 

Roy H. Stevens, Jr., Field Representative, United Steelworkers of America, 
CIO 

Judge Carl E. Wahlstrom 

Dr. Joseph Weinreb, Worcester Youth Guidance Center 
Rev. Chester A. Wheeler, President, Greater Worcester Area Council of 
Churches 



Public Document 



No. 16H 



ollyp Olommonmpaltli nf fHaBBarlyuBPttB 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

ANNUAL REPORT 

of the 

Jlassachusetls Commission 
Against Discrimination 

Mildred H. Mahoney, Chairman 
Judge A. K. Cohen, Commissioner 
Elwood S. McKenney, Commissioner 




November 30, 1952 to November 30, 1953 
Nuvombor 10^ 1916 to November 30, 1953 

41 Tremont Street 
Boston, Massachusetts 

Publication of this Document Approved by Georqk J. Crokin, Statb Purchasing Agent 
lm-3-54-911694 

1^5 



MAY 3 1954 

ifATf <HeME. BOSTOW 
OFFIOALI 

INTRODUCTION 3 

ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES 4 

Complaints, Investigations and Studies 4 

Investigations — Public Housing 4 

Investigations — Age Amendment 5 

Investigations — Public Accommodations 6 

Complaints — Selected Case Histories — Fair Employment Practices 7 

Complaints — Selected Case Histories — Public Accommodations 8 

Survey of Cases 8 

Statistical Report 9 

Chapter 437 Public Accommodation Amendment 10 

EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES 10 

MCAD Council Programs 

Boston Council 10 

Worcester Council 13 

Springfield Council 13 

New Bedford Council 14 

North Shore Council 14 

Radio Broadcasts 14 

Unit of Study 14 

Exhibits 15 

Meetings Held in Cooperation with M.S.E.S 15 

Conferences 15 

Reactions of Minority Groups to a Recent Questionnaire 17 

Publications 18 

State Advisory Council Membership 18 

Regional Council Membership 18 

Springfield 18 

Boston 19 

Worcester 20 

New Bedford 20 



1955 

ANNUAL REPORT 
OF THE 

MASSACHUSETTS COMMISSION AGAINST 
DISCRIMINATION 

Introduction 

The following summation of the work of the Massachusetts Commission 
Against Discrimination, covering the period between November 30, 1952, and 
November 30, 1953, is the eighth such report to be filed with the Governor 
and General Court since the Commonwealth enacted its first fair employment 
practice statute in May of 1946. 

Statistical reports contained in this document demonstrate clearly that 
Massachusetts has continued its progress in this relatively new field of human 
relations at a steady pace since it took the first pioneering step by declaring 
it to be illegal to discriminate in employment solely because of a person's 
race, color, religious creed, national origin or ancestry. The MCAD proudly 
reports that this pace has been maintained without needless fanfare and 
certainly without brandishing any big stick. 

Almost every intervening year since 1946 the Legislature has seen fit to 
further strengthen the laws administered by the MCAD protecting the civil 
rights of the so-called minority groups. The year 1953 was no exception. 
During the last session of the Legislature a new and broader interpretation 
was given to the statute which makes it unlawful for the operators of places 
of public accommodation to discriminate against anyone because of his race, 
color or religious creed. 

Discrimination, the MCAD has found, has been pushed back successfully 
both through the medium of education and through the routine processing 
of the complaints it receives alleging violations of the law. 

The Commission is also of the opinion that additional progress can be ob- 
tained through the integration of its efforts with those of other public agencies 
and with trade unions and industry in preparing youthful members of minority 
groups for jobs through apprentice training. 

The opening of employment opportunities to young people, who may other- 
wise be relegated to less remunerative or less attractive jobs for lack of proper 
training, may be one of the most rewarding attacks on discrimination upon 
which this agency can embark. 

Training of personnel for industry has fallen upon the schools, labor unions 
and industry, collectively or individually. Each has done a successful job, but, 
unfortunately, too often a member of a particular racial or religious group has 
failed to take fullest advantage of the opportunities open to him because of 
conditions beyond his control. 

The MCAD presently is engaged in making the first of what is expected 
to be a series of industry-wide surveys throughout the state to determine what 
means can be employed to bring job-seeking youth and job opportunities 
together. Cooperating in this study are members of organized labor, manage- 
ment and the schools. It is hoped that a conscientious study of the data 
developed through the investigations will lead to a determination of the 
lemedial action this agency can recommend in the near future. 



4 



Enforcement Activities 
Complaints, Investigations and Studies 

The Fair Employment Practice Act of 1946 as amended, authorizes the 
Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination to process complaints in 
employment because of race, color, religious creed, national origin, age and 
ancestry; in places of public accommodation because of race, color, and re- 
ligion; in public housing both segregation and discrimination are unlawful 
if based upon race, color, creed or religion. The Commission is also em- 
powered to carry on an educational program. 

In 1953 the Legislature amended the public accommodation law so that 
it now includes, generally speaking, any place which solicits, accepts or is 
open to the general public. The complete text of the amendment is printed 
at the end of this section on page 10. 

In the period covered by this eighth annual report, November 30, 1952 — 
November 30, 1953, MCAD initiated, received or processed 242 matters 
involving employment discrimination. Of these, 146 were based upon allega- 
tions of discrimination because of race, color, religious creed, national origin 
or ancestry. The remaining, 96, were based upon allegations of discrimina- 
tion because of age. 

In addition, MCAD handled 16 matters involving allegations of discrimi- 
nation by places of public accommodation because of race or religion. 

Forty-one per cent of complaints disposed of, which alleged discrimination 
in employment because of race, color, religious creed, national origin or an- 
cestry were settled after investigation and conference and resulted in agree- 
ments to correct an unlawful employment practice. 

Fifty-nine per cent of these complaints were closed for lack of probable 
cause. 

In ninety-two per cent of the complaints and investigations concerning age 
some evidence of discrimination was found and corrected. 

In fifty per cent of the complaints and investigations concerning places of 
public accommodation, some evidence of discrimination was found and 
corrected. 

Investigations — Public Housing 

In 1950 the statutes administered by MCAD were amended to include 
a specific provision that there should be neither segregation nor discrimination 
in public housing projects in the Commonwealth. Since that date the MCAD 
has undertaken, with the cooperation of the Federal Housing Agency, the 
State Housing Board and the individual housing authorities throughout the 
state to modify previously existing tenancy practices in order to carry out 
the purposes of this amendment. 

After three years of continuing endeavor, it is noted that not a single com- 
plaint, as provided by law, has been filed against any housing authority in 
Massachusetts alleging unlawful discrimination or segregation because of race 
or religion; while at the same time specific changes in housing practices have 
been brought about and all housing authorities now have a general appre- 
ciation of their obligations under the statute. 

This result has been accomplished both because of MCAD's initiative in 
dealing immediately and continuously with the several authorities after the 
enactment of the amendment and also as a result of the spirit of cooperation 
by the latter. From all evidence available the housing authorities of Boston, 
Cambridge, Worcester, New Bedford and Springfield have now in effect 
tenant selection policies and procedures consistent with the law against 
segregation and discrimination. 

It is of significance further to note here that after three years of ex- 
perience with integrated housing no incident nor difficulty has been reported 
or recorded arising out of the housing of white and colored families or 
families of diff'erent religions of any more serious consequence than the 



5 

ordinary experience of any community of tenants in any public housing 
project. 

It is of particular importance that the integ:ration of families of different 
races and religions has progressed beyond the experimental stage in the 
City of Boston since in that City there is both the largest representation of 
minority groups and the most development of public housing projects. It 
has been the recommendation of MCAD that the Boston Housing Authority 
interpret the law against discrimination in public housing to mean that all 
applicants for public housing, regardless of lace or religion, should be treated 
alike and that this same principle should be applied once they have been 
housed. 

It is such a policy which the Boston Housing Authority has in effect and, 
generally speaking, it has operated to resolve the few, ordinary and unpub- 
licized matters which have required its consideration. The City of Boston, 
in following both the spirit and the letter of the law, has set an example, not 
only for other communities in the Commonwealth, but also for other munici- 
palities in the eastern United States. 

What has been true in Boston may also be observed concerning Cambridge 
and New Bedford. In the latter communities, not only was there intelligent, 
initial adjustment to the public housing law, but also it can be noted that all 
evidence of housing policy in these cities subsequently points to a sincere 
improved effort to continue fair practices as public housing has increased 
and as new Vacancies have occurred. 

In Worcester and Springfield the situation has shown little noticeable 
change from last year. Despite the encouragement of public officials and 
private agencies in the former city, the relatively few applications by colored 
families for project units remains still the most serious problem. In Spring- 
field the slight turnover in vacant units and the absence of new construction 
has provided hardly any opportunity to effect any significant change as yet 
in the tenancy pattern of that community's public housing. 

An example of the cooperation between MCAD and the Federal Housing 
Agency this year was the joint consideration of newspaper articles in the 
City of Holyoke referring to alleged discrimination by the local housing au- 
thority. Subsequently, MCAD conducted an investigation into these allega- 
tions and met with representatives of the Holyoke Authority to clarify the 
provisions of the statute and to undertake such remedial action as might meet 
mutual agreement. As a result of these conferences this housing authority 
has affirmed its obligations under the public housing law and has promised 
to issue a public statement to the Holyoke papers which will encourage all 
persons of that community in ne^d of housing to make application without 
concern because of their race or religion. 

Investigations — Age Amendment 

The Commission's educational-regulatory policy to prevent discrimination 
against employees and persons seeking employment between forty-five and 
sixty-five years of age was continued during the past year. The field staff 
checked advertisements in the help wanted column of the newspapers through- 
out the state for ads that were contrary to the provisions of the age amend- 
ment. The violative ads (if not based on bona fide occupational qualification) 
were classified by the Commission into two categories; those specifying age 
indirectly such as "young" men or women, "boys" or "girls" and those 
specifying age directly by requests for age itself, or limiting persons to a 
particular age bracket such as "between 20 and 35 years." Certain job 
descriptions such as "errand boy" "stock boy" "office girl" "salesgirl," etc., 
have been ruled as non-discriminatory by the Commission because they are 
classed as occupational titles by the United States Department of Labor. 

A form letter was sent to each employer advertising for an employee 
or employees in a manner which might be contrary to the law. This letter 



6 

contained a copy of the ad, the name of the newspaper and the day and month 

it appeared. The letter also stated: 

"On October 30, 1950, Chapter 697 of the Acts of 1960 became effective. 
This law prohibits discrimination in employment against persons between 
forty-five and sixty-five years of age, unless based upon a bona fide 
occupational qualification. The advertisement above may be a violation 
of this law. 

This Commission is charged with the enforcement of this law. 
It is not the policy of this Commission to file a complaint without inquiry. 
There may be legal reason for the form of that advertisement in that 
it may be a bona fide qualification, or it is possible that you are unaware 
of the law and of its requirements. Therefore, this letter is sent to you 
calling your attention to this matter with the request that you inform this 
Commission as to why you specified age directly or indirectly. If you 
claim that the age specification is based upon a bona fide occupational 
qualification, your reply should also contain a statement of the facts upon 
which you base this claim. 

Your prompt cooperation concerning this matter will be appreciated." 

Eighty-six of the employers contacted requested exemptions from the 
law on claims of bona fide occupational qualifications. Such requests were 
acted upon by the Commission members and exemptions were allowed or not, 
according to the individual merits of each case. Thirty-seven exemptions 
were granted. In these thirty-seven matters a majority of the Commissioners 
determined that the age of the persons to be hired was a qualification for the 
job under consideration. 

The forty-nine employers who were denied exemptions by the Commission 
were so notified and have abided by that decision. 

The hundreds of other employers contacted who did not ask for an exemp- 
tion have sent letters to the Commission stating that in the future their 
advertising would be so worded that it would not violate the law. 

As a result of the reported procedure a considerable improvement has been 
noted. It is evidenced by the decreasing number of discriminatory advertise- 
ments concerning age. Some of these advertisements are legal since they 
arc based on bona fide occupational qualifications, but those that are not, 
must be eliminated as references in advertising to race, color, religious creed, 
national origin and ancestry have been eliminated. 

Investigations — Public Accommodations 

As reported in 1952, the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination 
has undertaken to encourage places of public accommodation subject to the 
1950 amendment to make certain voluntary changes in their advertising in 
order that the general public might not possibly interpret such advertising 
as an indication of a discriminatory practice. 

Each spring the Commission writes to the resort hotels asking for a copy 
of their advertising material. Such phrases as "selected clientele" and 
"restricted clientele" have been eliminated. The phrase "churches nearby" 
has been questioned by certain responsible organizations and the Commission 
therefore suggested that the phrase "places of worship nearby" might be 
substituted. The Commission did not take the position that "churches 
nearby" indicated any disposition to discriminate assuming that statement 
was factual. In 1953 it was found that 276 resorts out of a total of 332 
contacted were using advertising materials which contained neither dis- 
criminatory language nor any mention of churches or religious services. 
In the remaining 56 where there was a mention of "churches nearby" or of 
religious services, most of these phrases appeared in a paragraph naming 
nearby attractions such as "bathing beach," "summer theatre," "shopping 
center," etc. 



7 

Consistent also with its effort to take preventive measures to eliminate 
discrimination by places of public accommodation, MCAD has availed itself 
of the opportunity to participate in training: schools for police officers from 
all sections of the Commonwealth and to emphasize the major obligations 
of public places to admit and to treat the general public without discrimina- 
tion because of race or religion. 

Complaints — Selected Case Histories — Fair Employment Practices 

1 

In April a complaint was filed against a Cambridge manufacturing company 
alleging discrimination because of color in that a department head of the 
company had failed to hire a colored woman for an inspection job after she 
had been referred to him by the personnel office. 

Investigation revealed that the woman had been refused employment al- 
though she was apparently as well qualified as other white applicants who had 
been hired after she had been rejected. 

Subsequently company officials agreed to re-interview the complainant and 
afterwards hired her. Within six months the complainant had been promoted 
to the top position in the department to which she had been assigned. (Case 
No. VIII-23-C) 

2 

In August a complaint was filed against a Boston manufacturing company 
alleging that its discharge of a colored woman employee after seven years 
of service was an unlawful act of discrimination because of her color on the 
ground that her forewoman had addressed insulting racial epithets to her 
for three years as a result of which there had been an altercation climaxed 
by her separation from the company. 

This charge having been supported substantially by other employees, a 
finding of probable cause was made against the company which thereafter 
agreed to compensate the complainant for time lost from work after her 
discharge and further to take necessary steps to assure the propriety of the 
said forewoman's conduct in the future. (Case No. VIII-48-C) 

3 

In January a complaint was filed against a Greater Boston transportation 
company alleging that the company's discharge of a colored driver for cer- 
tain violations of the terms of his employment was an excessive penalty in 
contrast to action taken against white drivers and that the complainant's 
color, alone, contributed to the circumstances leading up to the discharge. 

Investigation showed that the complaintant's good record, the character of 
the reports on which the company had acted and other circumstances of the 
case were sufficient evidence to credit complainant's allegations. 

Subsequently, after a finding, the complainant withdrew his complaint when 
the company agreed to rehire him for a probationary period and further agreed 
to pay him compensation for the five months he was out of work. The settle- 
ment of this case was effected largely as a result of the company's patience, 
consideration and regard for its obligations under the fair employment 
practice law. (Case No. VIII-6-C) 

4 

In April six complaints were filed against the suburban plant of a national 
automobile manufacturing company alleging unlawful discrimination because 
of religion in that the attendance of six employees of the plant at religious 
services on the evening of Holy Thursday had not been accepted as a reason- 
able excuse for not working overtime and as a consequence the company had 
taken disciplinary action. Investigation substantiatetl the allegations of the 
complaint. 

After the intervention of the Commission and upon the recommendation 



8 

of the company's home office, the disciplinary action complained of was re- 
considered and reversed. At the same time the company announced its 
future statement of policy that attendance at a church service would be a 
reasonable excuse for failure to work overtime, (Case Nos. VIII-26-31, in- 
clusive, RC) 

5 

In November a complaint was filed by a colored engineering school graduate 
against one of the nation's largest defense manufacturers alleging that he 
had been refused emplo>Tnent as an engineer because of his color. 

Subsequent to the investigation of this complaint company officials recon- 
sidered the complainant's application and notified the Commission that it was 
offering employment both to him and to a second colored graduate of the 
same school. (Case No. IX-2-C) 

Complaints — Selected Case Histories — Public Accommodations 

1 

In January a complaint was conciliated in which the proprietor of a Spring- 
field barbershop was alleged to have refused service to the complainant be- 
cause of his color. 

Investigation revealed that it was the practice of respondent to refer colored 
patrons to other barbershops in the vicinity. 

After conferences the barbershop proprietor agreed that he and his person- 
nel would serve all clientele entering his shop in the future to the best of theii 
ability without comment except to learn the service which the customer desires 
performed. (Case No. PII-18-C) 

2 

In May a married couple filed a complaint against a Boston cafe alleging 
that they had been refused service in respondent's main room because of their 
color. 

Investigation revealed that respondent's answer that the main dining room 
was reserved could not be credited because of conflicting statements made by 
respondent's representatives and because other customers had not been refused 
service. 

After conferences respondent agreed to pay damages to the complainant 
and agreed further that there would be no acts of discrimination in the future 
because of a patron's race or religion. (Case No. PIII-2-C) 

Survey of Cases 

Each year the Commission does a spot check on cases that have been com- 
pleted. The purpose of this is to discover if the person Avho was employed as 
a result of a case has been accepted by his fellow employees and has proved 
satisfactory on the job. The survey also checks on the number of employees 
and whether or not there has been an increase or decline in minority group 
personnel. 

Thirty-seven cases were re-checked. In each instance the employee had 
proved satisfactory and had been cordially accepted by his fellow workers. 
A few of the comments were as follows : 

"Our Colored workers are very satisfactory." 

"Our Negro drivers have worked out very well." 

"All employees are cooperative toward the minority groups." 

"Employing Negroes presents no problem." 

"Our Negro employees get along well." 

Twenty-five of the thirty-seven cases were based on complaints where dis- 
crimination was claimed prior to 1952; 22 cases because of color; 2 c^sea 
because of religion and one because of nation?il origin, 



9 

Employment in these twenty-five companies 1948 1953 

Total Employment 8086 7727 

Total Negro Employment 20:> 407 

Total Jewish Employment 86 19 

Twelve very recent cases were rechecked; eight of which were based on 

color, three on national origin and one on religion. In these companies the 

figures showed that: 

Employment in these twelve companies 1952 1953 

Total Employment 4744 5969 

Total Negro Employment 33 174 

Total Jewish Employment 27 40 

STATISTICAL REPORT 
November 10, 1946 to November 30, 1953 

Complaints : 

Initiated and received 887 

Closed after formal hearing 1 

Closed after investigation and conference 476 

Closed for lack of probable cause 309 

Closed for lack of jurisdiction 34 

Withdrawn 36 

Pending investigation and conference 31 

Investigations Without Formal Complaint: 

Initiated by the Commission 454 

Closed after investigation and conference 371 

Closed for lack of probable cause 73 

Transferred to complaint 3 

Pending investigation and conference 7 

Nature of Complaints and Investigations: 

Based upon alleged color discrimination 693 

Based upon religious discrimination 211 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of race 38 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of national origin 115 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of ancestry 16 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of age 268 

Type of Complaints: 

Against employers 946 

Against employment agencies 85 

Against labor unions 28 

Against employees 4 

Others 278 



The following paragraphs may be found in the Commission's RULES OF 
PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE of November 19, 1947: 

Case dismissed for lack of probable cause means that "if the Investigating 
Commission after investigation is of the opinion that the lespondent has not 
engaged and is not engaging in any unlawful employment practice he may 
order the complaint dismissed for lack of probable cause, and entry of such 
disposition shall be made on the records of the Commission." 

Case closed after investigation and conference means that 'if, after investi- 
gation and conference, the Investigating Commissioner is satisfied that any 
unlawful employment practice of the respondent will be eliminated, he may, 



10 

with the consent of the complainant, treat the complaint as conciliated, and 
entry of such disposition shall be made on the records of the Commission." 

(Chap. 437) 

AN ACT FURTHER DEFINING A PLACE OF PUBLIC ACCOMMO- 
DATION, RESORT OR AMUSEMENT 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 92A of Chapter 272 of the General Laws, inserted by Chapter 
117 of the acts of 1933, is hereby amended by striking out the second para- 
graph and inserting in place thereof the following paragraph : — 
A place of public accommodation, resort or amusement within the mean- 
ing hereof shall be defined as and shall be deemed to include any place, 
whether licensed or unlicensed, which is open to and accepts or solicits 
the patronage of the general public, and, without limiting the generality 
of this definition, whether or not it be (1) an inn, tavern, hotel, shelter, 
roadhouse, motel, trailer camp or resort for transient or permanent guests 
or patrons seeking housing or lodging, food, drink, entertainment, health, 
recreation or rest; (2) a carrier, conveyance or elevator for the trans- 
portation of persons, whether operated on land, water or in the air, and 
the stations, terminals and facilities appurtenant thereto; (3) a gas sta- 
tion, garage, retail store or establishment, including those dispensing 
personal services; (4) a restaurant, bar or eating place, where food, 
beverages, confections or their derivatives are sold for consumption on or 
off the premises; (5) a rest room, barber shop, beauty parlor, bathhouse, 
seashore facilities or swimming pool; (6) a boardwalk or other public 
highway; (7) an auditorium, theatre, music hall, meeting place or hall, 
including the common halls of buildings; (8) a place of public amuse- 
ment, recreation, sport, exercise or entertainment; (9) a public library, 
museum or plantarium; (10) a hospital, dispensary or clinic operating 
for profit; provided, however, that no place shall be deemed to be a place 
of public accommodation, resort or amusement which is owned or operated 
by a club or institution whose products or facilities or services are avail- 
able only to its members and their guests nor by any religious, racial or 
denominational institution or organization, nor by any organization 
operated for charitable or educational purposes. 

Approved June 2, 1953. 

Educational Activities 

MCAD COUNCIL PROGRAMS 

The Commission is empowered by law to enlist the aid of Councils throughout 
the state. These Councils whose members are appointed by the Commission 
are made up of outstanding citizens who serve without compensation in pro- 
moting the educational work of the Commission. 

The following is a brief report of the major activity of these Councils. 

Boston Council 

The main interest of the Boston Council has been centered on a study of 
apprentice training. This study was sponsored by the Council at its meeting 
on February 26th, 1953. It was pointed out that Massachusetts long famous 
for its skilled workmen is not replacing them. This is especially true in the 
metal trades. At the present time an alarming number are past fifty years 
of age and not nearly enough employees are being trained to replace them. 
This in itself is a serious situation but it is not of course of primary concern 
to the Commission. The concern of the Commission is that members of 
minority groups should be made aware of the apprentice training opportunities 



11 

and receive an equal chance in apprentice training-. This concern is shared 
by the Boston Council. 

Apprentice Training may bo of the formal type required by and regristered 
with the Division of Apprentice Training (Department of Labor and Indus- 
tries) or it may be "on-the-job" training in single oi- multiple skills. In either 
case it offers very worthwhile opportunities. 

It was the thought of the Commission and the Boston Council that this 
problem should be approached through a study of what is being done in indus- 
try, in labor unions, by the Massachusetts Employment Service, by vocational 
guidance people in private and public schools and by the social service agencies. 

The Council was especially interested, as a first step, in the appioach that 
is being made by industry. 

The Massachusetts law against discrimination in employment covers race, 
color, religious creed, national origin or ancestry and age. When the follow- 
ing questionnaire was drawn up it was felt it would be impossible to check 
on all national origin groups. Italian-Americans were selected to represent 
national origin groups, Jews to represent religious groups and Negroes to 
represent racial groups. 

Field Representatives called upon 157 concerns in the metal trades. The 
following questions were asked: 

1. Are you familiar with the objectives of the Massachusetts Commission 
Against Discrimination? 

148 of the 157 firms replied in the affirmative which gave the high 
percentage of 949c. 

2. Has there been an increase in the employment of minority group ])eople 
at your plant since 1945? 

SS^r of the firms reported that there had been and 56 ''r replied that 
there had not been. 

3. Approximately how many minority group people were employed in 
1945-52? 

1945 1952 

Italian-Americans 3,361 2,427 

Jews 401 421 

Negroes « 613 1,106 

Total 4,375 3,954* 

4. Approximately what was the total employment in 1945 and 1952? 

In 1945; 40,154 employed. In 1952; 36,442 employed.- =•= 

5. Have you had any complaints within your own plant regarding any form 
of discrimination? 

Of the 157 firms interviewed, thirteen reported that they had had 
such complaints. 144 said that they had not. Of the firms which re- 
ported complaints, the number totalled twenty-three and all twenty- 
three were satisfactorily adjusted. 

6. Do you have a formal apprenticeship program? 

Twenty-one concerns rep'^rted a formal program and 136 stated they 
had no such program. 

7. Do you have an informal apprenticeship program? 

Twenty-three concerns reported yes and 134 reported no. 

8. Do you have an ''on-the-job" training program? 

Fifty-four reported yes and 103 reported no, 

* In answer to question No. 3 that durinpr 1945-1952 the employment of the groups tested 
showed an increase in two instances and a decrease in one. 

*♦ Note in answer to question No. 4 that there was a decrease in total employment during the 
1945-1952 period. 



12 



DBFiNmoNS OF Terms Used 

"Formal" apprenticeship: 

A program wRich has as its objective the training of an all-round me- 
chanic, during a definite and stated period of time usually expressed in 
hours or years. Such a program normally includes the following 
provisions : 

1. Qualifications of applicant. 

2. Schedule of work processes on machines on which the apprentice 
is to receive training on the job under supervision. 

3. An increasing schedule of wages to be paid apprentice during 
his training period. 

4. Provision for supplemental instruction in subjects related to his 
trade. 

5. Provision for records to be kept on progress of each apprentice. 

6. Awarding of a Certificate upon satisfactory completion. 

7. Other terms and conditions of employment. 

Such a program is usually set forth in writing and incorporates the use 
of a written agreement between the apprentice and the employer. 
"Informal" apprenticeship: 

A training program set up by a company sometimes in cooperation with 
a local public or private school, designed to produce a worker with special 
multi-skills, often involving a year or more in training. Terms and con- 
ditions of employment are not normally expressed in writing and a 
written agreement is not made. 
"On-the-Job" training: 

Any training program set up by the company to prepare its workers to 
hold single skilled jobs or semi-skilled jobs. Usually this type of train- 
ing is less than a year, and may be as short as four weeks' duration. 
D. How are selections made for apprentice or training programs? 

In 35 instances the companies selected applicants. 

In 8 instances public agencies made the selection. 

In 2 instances private agencies made the selection. 

In 18 instances private or public schools made the selection. 

10. In the apprentice program, how many represent Jewish, Negro and Italian- 
American groups? 

Nineteen Jewish applicants were enrolled, seventeen Negro and forty- 
nine Italian-Americans. 

11. How many do you have under training at present? 

The total number in "on-the-job" training programs totalled 564. Of 
these seventeen were Jewish, twenty-three Negroes and fifty-six 
Italian- Americans. 

The Boston Council was aided in this study by new members who joined the 
council during 1953. They are: 

Mr. Julius Bernstein, Executive Secretary, Boston Labor Committee To 

Combat Intoleiance 
Mr. John V. Connolly, Executive Secretary, Allied Printing Trades Council 
Mr. Hubert L. Connor, Director, Massachusetts Division of Apprentice 

Training- 
Mr. Ernest A. Johrson, Commissioner, Department of Labor and Industries 
Mr. G. Herbert Marcy, Vice-President, Gillette Safety Razor Company 
Mr, Arthur Seserman, Executive Secretary, National Metal Trades Associ- 
ation, Boston Branch 
Mr. William L. Stoddard, Vice-President, Lincoln & Terese Filene Founda- 
tion 

Mr. Leslie E. Woods, Director of Industrial Relations, Ratheon Manufactur- 
ing Company 

Messrs. Bernstein, Connor, Seserman and Stoddard have been of especial 
help in this study. 



13 



Worcester Council 

Both the Worcester and Springfield Council elected to follow the lead of the 
IJoston Council and take as their main activity for 1953 a study of apprentice 
training. This was voted at a meeting of the Worcester Council on February 
27, 1953 and at a meeting of the Springfield Council on March 31, 1953. The 
approach, however, to the same problem was varied. 

In Worcester the study is being conducted by members of the Council 
itself. Three committees were formed. They are as follows: 
Industry Labor and MSES Committee 

Mr. Frederick H. Case Jr., Field Representative, Public Relations, 

U. S. Steel Company 
Mr. Samuel J. Donnelly, A. F. of L. 

Mr. Roy H. Stevens, Jr., United Steel Workers of America, CIO 
Mr. Daniel J. Casale, Manager, Division of Employment Security 
Mr. Philip M. Morgan, President, Morgan Construction Co. 

Social Agencies Committee: 

Mr. Lyscom A. Bruce, Community Chest of Worcester 
Miss Julia E. Robinson, Board of Public Welfare 
Miss Anna M. Mays, N.A.A.C.P. 

Mrs. Daniel Farber, President, Interracial Council of Worcester 
Mr. Sacket R. Duryee, Treasurer, Wyman-Gordon Company 

Schools Committee: 

Mr. Thomas F. Power, Superintendent, School Department 

Rev. Hubert C. Callaghan, S.J., Holy Cross College 

Mrs. Dorothy L. Salter, President, Salter Secretarial School 

Mrs. Marion H. Hallock, League of Women Voters 

Mrs. Lawrence J. Bouchard, Massachusetts PTA 

Complete returns are not yet available. 

Springfield Council 

In Springfield, a sampling was made of fifteen concerns visited by a field 
representative of the MCAD, the results showed the following: 

Thirteen were located in Springfield, East Longmeadow, Agawam and West 
Springfield; one in Holyoke and one in Southbridge. 

The employment pattern in the fifteen companies showed: 



1945 1952 

Total workers in all companies 16,750 18,000 

Total Negro workers 326 387 

Total Jewish workers 276 143 

Total Italian-Americans 1,612 2,023 

Companies showing an increase of minority group workers, 

as of 1952 8 

Companies showing no increase of minority group workers, 

as of 1952 7 



A pp re }i t icesh ip Programs 

Formal 7 

Informal 4 

None 4 

Selection of Apprentices 

By company alone 9 

By company and union 2 

By company and local public or private schools 3 

Total apprentices in all formal or informal apprenticeship 

programs .* 100 



14 

Negroes 

Jews 

Italian-Americans 6 

On-the-job Training Programs 

Companies with some on-the-job training 9 

Companies with no on-the-job training 6 

Total trainees in all on-the-job training 313 

Negroes 5 

Jews 

Italian-Americans 'i'O 



New Bedford Council 

The New Bedford Council has been less active than usual this year because 
its chairman, Mr. Anthony Snyder was drafted for important work in Wash- 
ington and only returned to New Bedford for a very brief period before ac- 
cepting a new position in another state. 

The Commission deems itself very fortunate that on November 2, Mr. 
Alvah G. Patterson, Personnel Director of the Hathaway Manufacturing 
Company accepted the chairmanship left vacant by Mr. Snyder's resignation. 

The most interesting study made by the New Bedford Council in the past 
year dealt with the opportunities offered Negro students as a result of their 
high school training. It was done in cooperation with Miss Susan E. Shen- 
nan, Director of Guidance and Placement in the New Bedford High School. 

North Shore Council 

A new council is being formed in Lynn. The Commission is very fortunate 
in that Mr. Henry J. Kozlowski, Treasurer, Jackson and Phillips, Incorporated, 
has accepted the chairmanship. 

Radio Broadcasts 

In April and May members of the Massachusetts Commission Against Dis- 
crimination gave a series of eight radio broadcasts over station WVOM. 
These talks were unrehearsed. They were given by members of the Commission 
and Field Representatives who discussed the following topics: 
How and why the MCAD came into existence; 

What it covers as far as its law enforcing provisions are concerned; 
What makes up its educational program; 

What it deems to be its major successes and chief problems. 

Comments sent to the Commission concerning the series were very favorable. 

The major radio stations have continued to give spot announcements con- 
cerning the work of the Commission throughout the year. This has proved 
very helpful. 

Unit of Study 

With the help of Mr. Thomas Curtin, Director, American Citizenship, State 
Department of Education the Commission prepared a unit of study "Dis- 
crimination — Danger to Democracy" to be used throughout the high schools 
of the state. This unit was sent to superintendents and high school principals 
with the enthusiastic recommendation of Mr. John J. Desmond, Jr., Commis- 
sioner of Education. The following figures which came to the Commission 
as a result of a follow-up letter shows the extent to which this unit has been 
used : 

Total number of letters sent to superintendents and high 

school principals 475 

Total number of replies received from superintendents and 

high school principals 199 



15 

Total number using unit (the reactions to the unit were en- 
thusiastic) 95 

Number planning: to use the unit 50 

Number not using the unit 54 

Mr. Curtin has invited a representative of the Commission to participate 
in the various teacher training courses in American Citizenship which the De- 
partment of Education has organized throughout the state. 

The Commission has been very glad to take advantage of this opportunity. 



EXHIBITS 

As part of its educational activities, the MCAD is glad to set up for the 
education of employees, employers, labor unions, school or college and adult 
groups a specially devised exhibit of its materials. Frequently it is possible 
for a member of the Commission staff to accompany such exhibits. 

On December 8, 1952, the MCAD arranged for a pictorial display indicating 
the policy of non-segregation in the U. S. Armed Forces at the Veterans 
Administration office window on Beacon Street, Boston. 

More than one thousand delegates and guests at the A. F. of L. state con- 
vention in Springfield August 10, 1953 saw the materials of the Commission 
on display and were given summaries of Commission laws. 

The State, County and Municipal workers, A. F. of L. staged for the first 
time in Boston, at the First Corps Cadet Armory, a series of exhibits on "public 
service." The Commission set up and staffed a booth there on June 4 and 5, 
1953. 



MEETINGS HELD IN COOPERATION WITH THE M.S.E.S. 

The Commission was especially appreciative of the opportunity made pos- 
sible by the Massachusetts Division of Employment Security. Mr. Kenneth 
Minihan, Assistant Director arranged meetings held in five centers and in- 
cluding representatives from forty-one M.S.E.S. offices. Mrs. Mahoney and 
Mr. McKenney met with the executives and interviewers from these offices 
and discussed with them the responsibilities of both the M.C.A.D. and the 
M.S.E.S. 



BOSTON 

Including : 

Chelsea 

Cambridge 

Maiden 

Medford 

Somerville 

Newton 

Woburn 

Waltham 

Quincy 



WORCESTER 

Including: 

Milford 

Webster 

Fitchburg 

Athol 

Framingham 
Gardner 
Marlborough 
Ware 



TAUNTON 

Including: 

Brockton 

Norwood 

Fall River 

Attleboro 

New Bedford 

Plymouth 

Hyannis 



HAVERHILL 

Including: 

Lowell 

Law^rence 

Lynn 

Gloucester 

Newburyport 

Salem 



SPRINGFIELD 
Including : 
Pittsfield 
Northampton 
Greenfield 
North Adams 
Chicopee 
Holyoke 



CONFERENCES 

The Commission works in close cooperation with many groups, as is indi- 
cated by the fact that conferences have been held with the following individuals 
and groups: 



16 

State Advisory Council, Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination 
Mr. John J. Desmond, Jr., Chairman, Commissioner of Education 
Rt. Rev. Robert P. Barry, LL.D., St. Clement's Church 
Mr. Thomas H. Carens, Vicc-Prcsident-in-charjje of Public Relations,, 

Boston Edison Company 
Mr. Charles C. Dasey, Retired Manager, Cunard White Star, Ltd. 
Mr. Hubert L. Connor, Director, Massachusetts Division of Apprentice 
Training 

Mr. Julius Bernstein, Executive Secretary, Boston Labor Committee to 

Combat Intolerance 
Mr. Michael Sage, Director, American Jewish Committee 
Mr. Gerald A. Berlin, Legal Counsel, American Jewish Congress 
Mr. Sol Kolack, New England Regional Director, Anti-Defamation League 

of B'nai B'rith 

Mr. Robert Segal, Executive Director, Jewish Community Council of Metro- 
politan Boston 

Joint Committee of the New England Division of the American Jewish 
Congress and the Jewish Community Council of Metropolitan Boston 

Mr. Morris Michelson, Chairman 

Mr. Gerald A. Berlin 

Mr. Julius Bernstein 

Mr. Joseph Greenfield 

Mr. Robert Segal 

Mr. F. Frank Vorenberg 

Mr. Lewis H. Weinstein 
Mr. Clifton E. Sommers, Representative, United Steel Workers Brother- 
hood, CIO 

Mr. John J. Regan, Vice-President, International Brotherhood of Electri- 
cal Workers, AFL 

Mr. David P. McSweeney, Business Agent, International Association of 
Machinists, AFL 

Mr. Roy F. Williams, Executive Vice-President, Associated Industries of 

Massachusetts 

Mr. Arthur Seserman, Executive Secretary, Boston Branch, National Metal 
Trades Association 

Intergroup Relations Council (an organization of twenty heads of com- 
munity relations organizations) 

Dr. Franklin P. Hawkes, Director, Massachusetts Fair Educational Prac- 
tices 

Miss Marenda E. Prentis, Executive Secretary, Massachusetts Conference of 
Social W^orkers 

Mr. Henry B. Brickman, Executive Secretary, Massachusetts Hospital As- 
sociation 

Miss Alice W. O'Connor, Supervisor, Massachusetts Division of Immigration 
and Americanization 

Mr. Kenneth Minihan, Assistant Director, Massachusetts Division of Em- 
ployment Security 

Mr. William Dabney, Race Relations Officer, Public Housing Authority 

Mr. Edward L. Cooper, Executive Director, Urban League of Greater Boston 

Boston Housing Authority 

Mr. Owen A. Gallagher, Chairtnan 

Mr. James Crowley, Director of Tenant Selection 

Holyoke Housing Authority 1 
Mr. Claude Brodeur, Executive Director i 
Mr. Meyer Feldman, Legal Counsel m 
Mr. Louis Falcetti, Board Member i 



17 

Mr. Thomas Heffernan, Executive Secretary, Mayor's Committee on Civil 

Improvement, Boston 
Miss Mabel Chin, Chinese Women's Club 

Mrs. Catherine Johnson, Executive Director, Cambridge Civic Unity Com- 
mittee 

Mr. Fred W. Steele, Executive Secretary, New Bedford Cotton Manu- 
facturers' Association 

Mr. Thomas J. Curtin, Director of American Citizenship, Massachusetts 

State Department of Education 
Mr. Ted Oakey, Insurance Broker 

Mr. Gordon Gifford, Superintendent, Automobile Department, Aetna In- 
surance Company 

Street and Company, Inc. 
Mr. Harold J. Street 
Mr. William Frye 

Mrs. Mary Gibson, William C. Codman & Son 

Mr. Howard Rubin, Steven's Realty Company. 

REACTION OF MINORITY GROUPS TO A RECENT QUESTIONNAIRE 

As part of its educational work the Commission wants to make sure that 
people are well aware of the services it can render. With this in mind a 
membership questionnaire was drawn up with the help of Dr. Gordon W. 
Allport. This questionnaire was presented to the Interracial Council which 
is composed of twenty agencies promoting better group understanding, re- 
spect and good will. The agencies making up the council expressed their 
interest in sending the questionnaire to their membership. Four agencies 
did this. A summary of the answers returned to these four agencies follows 
showing a return of around 5%. 

1. Have you heard of one or more cases of discrimination? 

a. In employment because of race, color, religious creed, national origin, 
age or ancestry. 

Yes 39 (No details given concerning aggrieved persons. 

No 180 or time of alleged incidents) 

No answer 33 

b. In public accommodations because of race or religion. Definition : 

"A place of public accommodation, resort or amusement within the 
meaning hereof shall be defined as and shall be deemed to include 
any inn, whether conducted for the entertainment, housing or lodging 
of transient guests, or for the benefit, use or accommodation of those 
seeking health, recreation or rest, any restaurant, eating house, public 
conveyance on land or water or in the air, bathhouse, barbershop, thea- 
tre and music hall." NOTE : This definition must now be expanded 
since the passage of Senate Bill No. 720. 



Yes 42 (Reply No. 130 mentioned a hotel; reply No. 124 

No 172 mentioned a restaurant; but no details were 

No answer 38 given concerning aggrieved persons or time 

of alleged incidents) 

c. In public housing because of discrimination or segregation due to race 
or creed. 

Yes 39 ( Xo details given) 

No 25 

No answer 188 



18 

d. In private or public schools or colleges because of admission practices 
(any answers to this question will be reported to Dr. Franklin P. 
Hawkes, Director, Fair Educational Practices, State Department of 
Education). 

Yes 32 (No details given concerning aggrieved persons 

No 180 or time of alleged incidents) 

No answer 40 

2. Has this been reported to the MCAD, 41 Tremont Street, Boston? 

Yes 5 (No details given) 

No 107 

No answer 140 

3. If not, why in your opinion was it not reported? 

Second hand information 26 

Varied reasons 4 

No answer 222 

4. Comments : 

None 206 Unfavorable 1 

Favorable 40 Don't know 5 

PUBLICATIONS 

Annual Report — November 30, 1951 — November 30, 1952 (printed) 
An Act Providing for a Fair Employment Practice Law 

(Chapter 368, Acts of 1946, printed) 
An Act Changing the Name of the Massachusetts Fair Employment Prac- 
tice Commission 

(Chapter 479, Acts of 1950, printed) 
An Act Relative to Discrimination Against Employees . . . Between 45 

and 65 Years of Age 

(Chapter 697, Acts of 1950, printed) 
An Act Further Defining a Place of Public Accommodation, Resort or 

Amusement 

(Chapter 437, Acts of 1953, printed) 
Discrimination — Danger to Democracy, Unit of Study (printed) 
Summary of the Laws Against Discrimination (printed) 
Memorandum of Position of MCAD, On Age Law (mimeographed) 
Policies, Commission Against Discrimination (mimeographed) 
Excerpt from the Law Against Discrimination — Public Accommodations, 

August 1950 (mimeographed) 
Rules of Practice and Procedure (mimeographed) 

Newsletter Toward Racial and Religious Understanding (mimeographed) 

State Advisory Council Membership 

John J. Desmond, Jr., Chairman, Commissioner of Education 
Rt. Rev. Robert P. Barry, LLD., St. Clement's Church, Trustee of Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital. 
Thomas H. Carcns, Vice-President in charge of Public Relations, Boston 

Edison Company 
Charles C. Dasey, Retired, Manager, Cunard White Star, Ltd. 
Judge Jacob J. Kaplan, former President, Boston Bar Association 

Regional Council Membership 

Sprinyfield 

Charles V. Ryan, Esquire, Attorney-at-Law, Chairman 
Mrs. Richard B. Anderson, League of Women Voters 



19 

Archie Burack, Member, Springfield City Council 

Robert G. Bleakney, General Superintendent, New England Telephone & 

Telegraph Company 
John H. Breck, Jr., John H. Breck, Incorporated 

George C. Gordon, National Association for the Advancement of Colored 
People 

Miss Alice L. Halligan, Director, Bureau of Guidance, Placement and 
Adult Education, Springfield School Department 

Harry P. Hogan, Business Agent, Carpenters' District Council, A.F. of L. 

Robert W. Button, Secretary, Employers' Association of Western Massa- 
chusetts 

Mrs. Thelma L. Keitlen, Community Consultant, Western Massachusetts 

Area, Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith 
Dr. Howard P. Kennedy 

Raymond T. King, Esquire, Attorney-at-Law 

Alexander B. Mapp, Executive Secretary, Urban League of Springfield 

Roger L. Putnam, President, Package Machinery Company 

Mrs. Roger L. Putnam, Springfield Housing Authority 

Mrs. Albert G. Rivett, Parent-Teachers Association 

Frederick B. Robinson, Director, Springfield Museum of Fine Arts 

Mrs. Charles V. Ryan 

James J. Shea, President, Milton-Bradley Company 
Charles ViVenzio, Member, Local 202, lUE-CIO 

Boston 

Clarke E. Woodward, Chairman, Senior Vice-President, Liberty Mutual 

Insurance Company 
Norman H. Abbot, Director, Boston University Placement Service 
J. William Belanger, President, Massachusetts State CIO 
Julius Bernstein, Executive Secretary, Boston Labor Committee to Com- 
bat Intolerance 

Salvatore Camelio, Secretary-Treasurer, Massachusetts State CIO, Dis- 
trict Director, United Rubber Workers, CIO 
John V. Connolly, Executive Secretary, Allied Printing Trades Council 
Hubert L. Connor, Director, Division of Apprentice Training 
Abram T. Collier, Second Vice-President, John Hancock Mutual Life In- 
surance Company 

Frederick A. Cosgrove, Vice-President, Personnel, New England Tele- 
phone & Telegraph Company 
Norris G. Davis, Member, Business & Professional Men's Club 
Harry Grages, Chairman, State Labor Relations Board 
Harold D. Hodgkinson, Vice-President and General Manager, William 
Filene's Sons Company, Chairman of the Board, Federal Reserve 
Bank of Boston 

Ernest A, Johnson, Commissioner, Massachusetts Department of Labor & 
Industries 

Michael T. Kelleher, Vice-President, Marsh & McLennan, Inc. 

Kenneth J. Kelley, Secretary-Treasurer & Legislative Agent, Massachu- 
setts State Federation of Labor 

G. Herbert Marcy, Vice-President, Gillette Safety Razor Co. 

Stephan E. McCloskey, Secretary-Treasurer, and Business Agent, Central 
Labor Union 

Thomas A. Pappas, President, C. Pappas Company, Inc. 
Colonel Leonard T. Peters, Peters Employment Service 



20 

Arthur Seserman, Executive Secretary, National Metal Trades Associa- 
tion, Boston Branch 

William L. Stoddard, Vice-President, Lincoln & Terese Filene Foundation 

F, Frank Vorenberg, President, Gilchrist Company; Vice-President, 
United Community Services, Trustee of Five Cents Savings Bank 

Leslie Woods, Director of Industrial Relations, Raytheon Manufacturing 
Company 

Worcester 

The Honorable Andrew B. Holmstrom, Chairman, Mayor, City of Worces- 
ter 

Mrs. Laurence J. Bouchard, Massachusetts Parent-Teachers Association 
Lyscom A. Bruce, Secretary, Community Chest of Worcester 
Reverend Hubert C. Callaghan, S.J., Holy Cross College 
Daniel J. Casale, Manager, Division of Employment Security 
Frederick H. Case, Jr., Field Representative Public Relations, U. S. Steel 

Company 
Samuel J. Donnelly, A. F. of L. 

Gardener C. DeMallie, President, Family Service Organization 
S. R. Duryee, Treasurer, Wyman-Gordon Company 
Mrs. Katherine F. Erskinc, Member, School Committee of Worcester 
Mrs. Daniel Farber, President, Interracial Council of Worcester 
Judge Joseph Goldberg, Chairman, Worcester Area Committee, Anti- 
Defamation League 
Rev. Hartley Grandin, President, Greater Worcester Area Council of 
Churches 

Mrs. Marion Hallock, League of Women Voters 
Milton P. Higgins, President, Norton Company 
Mrs. Charles J. Hudson, League of Women Voters 
Dr. Howard B. Jefferson, President, Clark University 
Rabbi Joseph Klein, Temple Emanuel 

Miss Anna Mays, member, National Association for the Advancement of 
Colored People 

John F. Mitchell, Treasurer, Reed Rolled Thread Die Company 

Philip M. Morgan, President, Morgan Construction Company 

Mrs. Arthur G. Perry, Worcester Council of Mothers' Club 

Mrs. Thomas L. Porter, Worcester Woman's Club 

Thomas F. Power, Superintendent, School Department 

George A. Roberts, member, National Association for the Advancement 

of Colored People 
Miss Julia E. Robinson, Board of Public Welfare 
Mrs. Dorothy L. Salter, Salter Secretarial School 
Miss Mildred L. Savacool, Young Women's Christian Association 
Paul W. Spaulding, President, John C. Maclnnes Company 
Roy H. Stevens, Jr., United Steel Workers of America, CIO 
Judge Carl E. Wahlstrom 

Dr. Joseph Weinreb, Worcester Youth Center 

New Bedford 

Alvah G. Patterson, Chairman, Director of Industrial Relations, Hatha- 
way Manufacturing Company 
Judge Samuel Barnet, Director, Jewish Community Center 
W. Kenneth Burke, Superintendent of Schools 



21 

George Carignan, Director, New Bedford Joint Board, Textile Workers 
Union of America, CIO 

Miss Joy E. Colvin, Executive Director, Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciation 

Joseph Dawson, President, Knowles Loom Reed Works 

Mrs. Dorothy DeLoid Stahre, Principal, Cedar Grove School, American 

Federation of Teachers, A. F. of L. 
Joseph A. DeSousa, Director of Adult Civic Education Department, New 

Bedford School Department 
Joseph Duchaine, President, My Bread Baking Company 
Alfred J. Gomes, Esquire, Attorney-at-Law 

Harold Hurwitz, Esquire, Attorney-at-Law, Past State President, Junior 

Chamber of Commerce 
Walter S. MacPhail, Wamsutta Mills 

George F. McGovern, Works Manager, Revere Copper and Brass Co. 

C. Dudley Onley, Secretary, New Bedford Branch, National Association 

for the Advancement of Colored People 
Miss Susan E. Shennan, Director, Vocational Guidance and Placement, 

New Bedford School Department 
Fred W. Steele, Executive Secretary, New Bedford Cotton Manufacturers 

Association 
Representative Joseph A. Sylvia, Jr. 

Dr. Xenophon Thomas, National Association for the Advancement of 
Colored People 

Philip F. Tripp, Executive Director, New Bedford Housing Authority 
Mrs. Francis S. Winsper, Vice-Chairman, New Bedford Council of Social 

Agencies, League of Women Voters 
Mrs. Anthony Zielinski, Vice-President, Polish National Alliance, Execu- 
tive Board, Women's Republican Club. 



(Elft (Hsmmonm^Mf at HaaaarliuHPtta 

^ EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

ANNUAL REPORT 

of the 

Jlassachusetls Commissioii 
Against Discrimination 

Mildred H. Mahoney, Chahman 
Judge A. K. Cohen, Commissioner 
Elwood S. MoKenney, Commissioner 




November 30, 1953 to November 30, 1954 

11 Tremcnt Street 
Boston, Massachusetts 



PUBIjIOATION (>7, '^HI^ O.OPUMKNT iPPiOVBD BY OZOHO^ J. CBONIN, STATK PURCHASING AOUST 

4m-3-55-914354 



mi mm of mmmim 



CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION ARR 2.6 1955 ... 3 

ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES 3 

Powers and Duties .^^A^^ ^OU§E^ BOSTON 3 

Complaints and Investigations 3 

Studies 4 

Inquiries 4 

Investigations — Public Housing 4 

Investigations — Age Amendment ^^ 

Investigations — Public Accommodations (i 

Selected Case History — Fair Employment Practices .... 7 

Postscript to a Case Closed Three Years Ago 8 

First Formal Hearing — Public Accommodations 8 

Statistical Report 9 

Proportion of Cases Arising From Incidents 

of Religious Discrimination . .10 

EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES 12 

MCAD Council Programs 

State Advisory Council 12 

Boston Council 12 

Springfield Council 13 

New Bedford Council 14 

North Shore Council 14 

Worcester Council 15 

Radio Broadcasts 15 

N.A.I.R.0 16 

Conferences 17 

Cooperative Activities 18 

State Advisory Council Membership . . . . . . .19 

Regional Council Membership 

Springfield 19 

Boston . . . . 19 

Worcester 20 

New Bedford 21 

North Shore 22 



ANNUAL REPORT 
OF THE 

MASSACHUSETTS COMMISSION AGAINST 
DISCRIMINATION 

Introduction 

"The only true democracy is not the equalizing of 
men, but the adjustment of opportunity — ^the 
recognition of superiority wherever found. Not 
the leveling of all, but the enabling of each 
to find the level that is his own." — LeBaron Briggs. 

The above quotation explains the underlying philosophy of fair employment 
practice legislation. The same principle motivates the laws concerning public 
accommodations and public housing. The people in Massachusetts have re- 
sponded favorably to this type of legislation. Opposition has been so negligible 
that this year just one case had to go beyond the conference period to a 
hearing before the majority of the Commission. 

This is the second case in nine years that had to be referred to a formal 
hearing. Such a record has been made possible through the cooperation 
of business; labor; employment agencies; the special help of other organiza- 
tions that carry on educational programs which have helped to establish a 
climate of acceptance; and the general public. 

The Commission again wishes to state that it is sincerely grateful and hopes 
to continue to merit such cordial support. 



Enforcement Activities 

Powers and Duties 

"The right to work without discrimination because of race, color, religious 
creed, national origin, age or ancestry is a right and privilege of the inhabi- 
tants of the Commonwealth. 

"All persons shall have the right to the full and equal accommodations, 
advantages, facilities and privileges of any place of public accommodation, 
resort or amusement, subject only to the conditions and limitations established 
by law and applicable alike to all persons. This right is recognized and declaimed 
to be a civil right. 

"No person shall because of race, color, creed or religion, be subjected to 
any, discrimination or segregation in public housing." 

Whenever a right is conferred upon the people by the legislature, there is 
a duty that some agency of the government shall protect and enforce the right 
conferred. 

The Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination has the duty and 
is empowered by law to protect the rights cited above. 

Complaints and Investigations 

This, the ninth annual report, covers the period November 30, 1953-No- 
vember 30, 1954. During this period the Massachusetts Commission Against 
Discrimination initiated, received and processed 193 matters, involving 



4 



unlawful discrimination in employment because of race, color, religious creed, 
national origin, age or ancestry. 

In addition, this Commission processed 26 matters pertaining to allegations 
of discrimination in places of public accommodations because of religion, 
color or race. 

Studies 

The Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination has undertaken 
to study the relationship of apprentice training programs to: 1) Vocational 
Guidance in High Schools; 2) The practices of labor organizations; 3) The 
practices of employers; 4) The program of the Division of Appi-entice Train- 
ing; 5) The program of the Massachusetts State Employment service. 

The purpose of the study is to examine the relationship of apprentice train- 
ing programs in the Commonwealth to the several factors which control, 
influence or affect such programs with the objective in mind that this kind 
of employment should be available to all qualified youths without regard to 
race, color, religious creed, national origin or ancestry. The study of this 
subject is also prompted by the consideration that the best interests of in- 
dustry and of labor will be furthered in the years to come by the availability 
of skilled workers of all races and creeds. 

During the past year the following surveys were made as part of this 
long range study: 

Boston 

157 industrial organizations 43 labor organizations 

Worcester 

60 industrial organizations 17 social agencies 

Lynn 

97 industrial organizations 

Springfield 

45 industrial organizations 

In addition, during the past year, studies of the procedure of tenant selec- 
tion and placement were made of eight public housing authorities. 

Sixty cases, previously closed after a finding of probable cause, were re- 
viewed and a follow-up survey made on each one. 

A study was also made of the advertising material of 318 hotels and resorts 
operating within the Commonwealth. 

Inquiries 

The Visitors Record Book maintained by the Commission showed 612 signa- 
tures of visitors making inquiries, in person, of the Commission or members 
of the Commission staff in matters pertaining to the law and its interpreta- 
tions. 

Investigations — 'Public Housing 

On May 23, 1950 the statute administered by M.C.A.D. was amended by 
Chapter 479 to include provisions prohibiting discrimination and segregation 
in public housing developments in the Commonwealth. 

Since 1950 the M.C.A.D. has conducted annual surveys to ascertain the 
progress of integration in accordance with the statutes. These surveys have 
been made with the cooperation of the Federal Housing Agency, State Hous- 
ing Board and the individual Housing Authorities throughout the state. 

In the City of Boston where there is both the largest representation of 
minority groups and the most public housing it is evident that integration is 
no longer an experiment but an established and accepted fact. 



5 



The Boston Housing Authority on the recommendation of the M.C.A.D. 
interprets the law against discrimination in public housing to mean that all 
applicants for public housing regardless of race, color, creed or religion, 
should be treated alike, and the same principle applied when they are housed. 
In so operating the City of Boston has set an example not only for other com- 
munities in the Commonwealth, but also for other municipalities in the eastern 
United States. 

Cambridge and New Bedford have complied with the statute in much the 
same manner as Boston. In Springfield there has been no noticeable change 
in numbers from last year. A major factor to be considered in this lack 
of change is that there has been no further development of Springfield's 
housing projects. 

The situation in Worcester presents this problem, that despite the encourage- 
ment of public officials and private agencies in that city, there are relatively 
few applications by colored families. 

The Holyoke Housing Authority showed no improvement in integration 
over previous years despite the following notice which appeared in the Holyoke 
Transcript June 30, 1954: 

"H.H.A. IS TAKING APPLICATION FOR APARTMENT RENTALS. 
A notice was issued today by Claude J. Brodeur, executive secretary of the 
Holyoke Housing Authority that applications in the various projects 
administered by the H.H.A. are still being accepted and processed. 

"Brodeur said that there are currently eight vacant apartments in 
Beaudoin Village although all of these have been allocated and are only 
vacant pending the completion of redecoration of the interiors. At the 
same time, however, Brodeur said that there has been a steady turnover 
of tenants in this particular project. 

**Brodeur noted that the allocation of apartments in H.H.A. projects 
is done according to state law against discrimination which provides 
that *no person shall because of race, color, creed or religion, be subjected 
to any discrimination or segregation in obtaining or occupying quarters 
in publicly financed housing developments.' 

"The above policy, according to Brodeur's notice, guarantees people 
with required qualifications opportunities for housing, based solely on 
need when vacancies are available." 

An important factor to be considered in the process of integration is the 
tenant selection procedure used by the various Authorities. 

The Boston Housing Authority gives preference to disabled veterans, vet- 
erans and non-veterans in that order. Need and ability to pay are necessary 
factors in getting into a project. Investigation of applications requires an 
average of two weeks. All eligible applicants are placed in the same file 
without regard to race, color or creed. As vacancies occur tenants are 
selected from the file. 

An applicant for housing in Cambridge and Springfield follows much 
the same procedure as one in Boston. 

The Worcester Housing Authority is unique in its tenant selection pro- 
cedure. All applications are numbered and placed in the same file without 
regard to race, color or creed. They are then investigated, after which they 
are submitted to a tenant selection board, composed of clergymen and busi- 
nessmen of the area. The Board then determines the degree of need. The 
family is placed according to its number which establishes its chronological 
place on the list. 

New Bedford differs slightly in that special emphasis is placed on good 
references, no police record and good credit records. All applications are 
kept in the same file with no indication of race, color or creed. 



6 



The Holyoke Housing Authority gives preference first to disabled veterans; 
then veterans; and then all others as do the other Authorities. 

Due to the M.C.A.D.'s initiative after the enactment of the amendment 
and the cooperation of the several Housing Authorities, the result has been 
favorable. As evidence of the type of cooperation received, the Housing 
Authorities of Boston, Cambridge, Worcester, Springfield, Holyoke and New 
Bedford have now in effect tenant selection policies and procedures consistent 
with the law against discrimination and segregation. 

After four years it is noted that not a single complaint has been filed 
against any Housing Authority in the Commonwealth alleging unlawful 
discrimination or segregation because of race, color, creed or religion. Despite 
the lack of complaints, specific changes have been brought about in the 
practices of the various Housing Authorities. All Housing Authorities in 
the Commonwealth have been made aware of their obligations under the 
statute. 

Investigations — Age Amendment 

The educational-regulatory policy instituted by the Commission when 
it was given the additional duty to administer Chapter 697 of the Legisla- 
tive Acts of 1950 (age amendment) was continued during the past year. 

Periodic checks were made of the help wanted advertisements of all the 
daily and weekly newspapers published in the Commonwealth. Notices were 
sent to 326 employers and employment agencies bringing to their attention 
specific violations and requesting a statement as to the reasons for specifying 
age directly or indirectly. 

316 of those contacted pleaded ignorance of the law, and stated in writing 
their compliance with the law in future help wanted advertising. 

Ten business organizations requested an exemption based on the premise 
that age constituted a bona fide occupational qualification. 

Exemptions were granted to six and four requests were disapproved. 

Investigations — Public Accommodations 

In May of 1950 the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination 
was empowered to administer the Public Accommodations statute. Chapter 272, 
Section 98 of the General Laws (Ter. Ed.). 

As part of the administration of the statute, each year all resort hotels 
within the Commonwealth are contacted and requested to send copies of their 
advertisement literature for review by the Commission. 

This year the Commission reviewed the advertising brochures of 318 resort 
hotels. In not one instance was there found a violation of the provisions of 
the statute as applied to advertising. 

This Commission can partially evaluate the decrease in the incidence of 
discrimination in places of public accommodation by reports submitted by 
responsible interested private agencies. 

The Commission has received a statement recently from the Regional 
Office of the Anti-Defamation League. Inferentially it pays tribute to the 
voluntary cooperation of the hotel and resort owners in eliminating discrimi- 
natory practices in places of public accommodations. The statement follows: 

"The Anti-Defamation League has long been concerned with the prob- 
lems of hotel and resort discrimination. In 1946, '47 and '49 it conducted 
comprehensive surveys in this area which pointed up the fact that no less 
than 34',v of Massachusetts hotels and resorts engaged in discriminatory 
practices. A heavy case-load of complaints referred to the League corrobo- 
rated this finding. 

"In 1950, the Massachusetts General Court, disturbed by this evidence 
of Discrimination by places of public accommodation within the state, en- 



7 



trusted the M.C.A.D. with the responsibility of enforcing the civil rights 
public accommodations law. 

"Soon after the Commission assumed this new responsibility, it met with 
representatives of human relations agencies and reviewed the reports of 
alleged violations. The Commission immediately set about a program of 
corrective action. It conferred with the public accommodations industry 
through representatives of several hotel and resort associations representing 
sectional groups throughout the commonwealth. Within a year there was 
a noticeable diminution in the use of discriminatory advertising, and a 
majority of individual hotel and resort proprietors throughout the state 
changed their policy to one of non-discrimination. 

"In 1954 the Anti-Defamation League again reviewed the general picture 
j in Massachusetts. It found that its complaint case-load had dropped 
I substantially and that reports coming in to the headquarters of the League 
of violations of the public accommodations law were minimal and declining. 
"So significant has been the result of the enforcement of the public accom- 
I modations statutes in Massachusetts that a vigorous effort is being made 
' to achieve similar legislation in other New England resort states." 

Selected Case History — Fair Employment Practices. Docket No. VII-47-C 

Departing from the customary practice of citing numerous case histories to 
demonstrate the processes followed by the Commission in adjudicating com- 
plaints brought under the anti-discrimination statutes, it has been decided 
that the exposition of a single case, dealing with employment, would suffice 
this year. The case against The Pullman Company, reviewed below, was 
selected because of its national impact and because it clearly demonstrated 
the workableness of a law dependent for its effectiveness, to a large degree, 
on the powers of persuasion rather than court injunction. This case was 
settled in the conference period and did not have to go to a hearing. It was 
mutually agreed by all parties that the usual secrecy surrounding the identity 
of a respondent could be abandoned in this case, which is expected to pres- 
age the gradual elimination of one of the country's traditional examples of 
segregation in employment. 

Opening the doors of employment by The Pullman Company to persons 
without regard to their race or color resulted from the filing of a complaint 
by a Negro car cleaner who sought promotion to a more responsible position, 
"Carman Helper Apprentice." It was the complainant's contention that he 
had been unlawfully discriminated against when the company upgraded a 
white employee with fewer years' service. He further complained that the 
company d€<;lined to hire Negroes as conductors and white persons as Pullman 
porters. 

Under Massachusetts law it is unlawful "for an employer, by himself or 
his agent, because of race, color, religious creed, national origin, age or 
ancestry to refuse to hire any individual or to discriminate against such an 
individual in compensation or in terms, conditions or privileges of employment, 
unless based upon a bona fide occupational qualification." 

The first task of the Commission was to determine whether the denial of 
promotion was an unlawful act of discrimination. Investigations, extending 
over several months, were carried out by members of the Commission's staff 
and four informal conferences were held with the interested parties during 
which the parties were permitted to present evidence and examine witnesses. 
It was determined, to the satisfaction of the Investigating Commissioner, that 
the complainant had seniority over the man upgraded by the company and 
that the company had had, in effect, an established pattern of employment 
in its local yards which effectively prevented Negroes from rising above certain 
jobs requiring few if any skills. 

The same Investigating Commissioner found, in respect to the second 
complaint, that a policy restricting the emploj-ment of coloi^ed and white 
personnel had been in effect since the company's establishment more than 



8 



a half century a^. Rejected was the argument of counsel for the company 
that there had been no violation of the Massachusetts law in this regard 
inasmuch as there was no record of a colored applicant for a position 
as conductor or of a white applicant for a position as porter since August 
21, 1946 when the Legislature enacted the Fair Employment Practice law. 

"The facts are," read the official finding of the Investigating Commissioner, 
"that a restrictive, racial policy of employment has been implicit in the 
conduct of the respondent since the beginning. . . 

Acceding to the findings, The Pullman Company agreed to promote the 
complainant to the next vacancy in the position of carman helper apprentice 
(he has since been promoted to that position), and further, the company 
"agreed that in the hiring of porters and conductors in Massachusetts there 
shall be no restrictions on qualifications for such employment based solely 
on race, color, religious creed, national origin or ancestry. . . 

Postscript to a Case Closed Three Years Ago 

This case was originally recorded in the annual report of 1951. As you 
read it please remember that a teacher must serve for three successive years 
in a school system before she is on ''tenure". 

"In August 1951 a young colored woman filed a complaint of employment 
discrimination against a superintendent of schools alleging that although 
she was well qualified she had been refused further consideration for a 
teaching vacancy when it had become known that she was colored. 

"Investigation having supported the allegation, conferences were arranged 
between the local school committee and representatives of M.C.A.D. as a 
result of which an adjustment was made Avhereby the young woman was 
placed in a full time teaching position comparable to the one for which she 
applied. 

"About three weeks later, the complainant wrote to M.C.A.D. 'Please 
accept my thanks to you for the investigation and unrelenting efforts exhibited 
. . . two weeks have passed now and the cooperation from the superintendent 
has been splendid . . . the principal has extended me the same rights and 
privileges as have been given other teachers . . . thanks for everything.' 

"Referring to the appointment, an article in the local paper stated, in 
part, 'So the basic fact remains that the school committee acted promptly 
and unanimously and without publicity. For this they deserve the praise 
and admiration of Americans everywhere.*" (Case No. VI-49-C) 

In the fall of 1954 the teacher in this case received tenure. Because she 
is so happy in the community, her husband and she have bought a house 
there. Fate and a war had separated them for most of their married life. 
Now they feel they have peace and permanency. The Commission records 
this postscript because it likes happy endings. 

First Formal Hearing — Public Accommodations. Docket No. PIV-8-C 

On September 1, 1954 a formal hearing involving a place of public accom- 
modation, was held in the office of the Commission. It marked the first time 
that a violation of the public accommodations statute was brought beyond 
the informal procedure of eliminating the unlawful practice complained 
of by conciliation and persuasion. 

In April a complaint was filed against an owner and operator of a barber 
shop on Tremont Street, Roxbury, charging that he denied personal service 
to a man because of his color in violation of General Laws, Chapter 272, 
Section 98, as amended. 

The subsequent investigation substantiated the charges contained in the 
complaint and a finding of probable cause was made. 

Attempts to conciliate the matter having failed the case was certified by 
the Investigating Commissioner for a formal hearing. 



9 



The formal hearing was held and on September 28, 1954 the following 
Order was issued. 

1) that respondent cease and desist from violation of Chapter 272, Section 
98 and make no distinction, discrimination or restriction on account of 
religion, color or race, except for good cause applicable alike to all per- 
sons of every religion, color and race; 

2) that respondent make the accommodations, advantages, facilities and 
privileges of his barber shop available to all patrons, regardless of 
religion, color or race on an unsegregated basis; 

3) that respondent refrain from any and all acts, including the placing of 
signs on the premises to indicate in any way that new customers are not 
acceptable, which may indicate that the custom or patronage of any 
person is unwelcome, objectionable, not acceptable, desired or solicited; 

4) that respondent, by himself or his attorney, shall render a written report 
to this Commission for six months successively beginning on November 1, 
1954 as to the manner of its compliance with this order. 



STATISTICAL REPORT 
November 10, 1946 to November 30, 1954 



Complaints: 

Initiated and received 977 

Closed after formal hearing 2 

Closed after investigation and conference 499 

Closed for lack of probable cause 348 

Closed for lack of jurisdiction 36 

Withdrawn 53 

Pending investigation and conference 39 

Investigations Without Formal Complaint: 

Initiated by the Commission 516 

Closed after investigation and conference 411 

Closed for lack of probable cause 95 

Transferred to complaint 3 

Pending investigation and conference 7 

Nature of Complaints and Investigations: 

Based upon alleged color discrimination 777 

Based upon alleged religious discrimination 229 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of race 38 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of national origin 122 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of ancestry 19 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of age 308 

Type of Complaints : 

Against employers 1055 

Against employment agencies 96 

Against labor unions • 28 

Against employees 6 

Others 308 



10 



The following paragraphs may be found in the Commission's RULES OF 
PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE issued November 19, 1947: 

Case dismissed for lack of probable cause means that "if the Investigating 
Commissioner after investigation is of the opinion that the respondent has not 
engaged and is not engaging in any unlawful employment practice he may 
order the complaint dismissed for lack of probable cause, and entry of such 
disposition shall be made on the records of the Commission." 

Case closed after investigation and conference means that "if, after inves- 
tigation and conference, the Investigating Commissioner is satisfied that any 
unlawful employment practice of the respondent will be eliminated, he may, 
with the consent of the complainant, treat the complaint as conciliated, and 
entry of such disposition shall be made on the records of the Commission." 

Proportion of Cases Arising From Incidents of Religious Discrimination 

At the request of the National Community Relations Advisory Council, 
Committee on Employment Discrimination, the following statistics were com- 
piled showing the number of unlawful acts of discrimination in employment 
that trace to the factor of religion as compared with unlawful acts based on 
race, color, national origin, age or ancestry. 



Table 1. Cases Based on Alleged Religious Discrimination 



Basis for Alleged Discrimination 

Religion 

Jewish (specifically) 

Other than Religion 

TOTAL 



Last recorded year Cumulative 



From Through From Through 



12-1-53 11^0-54 11-10-46 11-50-54 



No. Vc No. % 



18 12 229 15 

9 6 173 11.6 

129 88 1,264 85 



147 100 1,493 100 



Sixty additional matters having to do with discrimination against members 
of the Jewish faith do not involve employment. 



Table II. Alleged Discriminatory Act 



From 11-10-46 



Jewish 



Cases Cumulative 

1. Refusal to hire 

2. Dismissal 

3. Conditions of employment 

(including upgrading) 

4. Unlawful pi-e-employment inquiry 

5. Unlawful advertisement 

6. Employment agency registration 

or referral denied 

7. Union membership or referral 

denied 

8. Other 

TOTAL 



To 11-30-54 



Non-Jewish 



No. 


% 


No. 


% 


42 


37 


6 


11 


17 


15 


8 


15 


12 


11 


9 


16 


6 


5 


14 


25 


25 


22 


5 


9 


8 


7 


2 


4 


2 


15 








2 


15 


11 


20 


114 


100 


55 


100 



11 



Table III. Types of Respondents 

From 11-10-46 To 11-30-54 



Jewish Non-Jewish 







No. 


% 


No. 


% 


1. 


Manuiacturing 


13 


11 


12 


21 


2 


Wholesale and retail trade 


31 


27 


19 


35 


3. 


Transportation, communication, 












utilities 


10 


9 


15 


9 


4. 


Finance, insurance, real estate 


r- 
i 


6 


2 


4 


5. 


Construction 


4 


4 


2 


4 


6. 


Government agencies 


6 


5 


1 


2 


7. 


Employment agencies 


8 


7 


2 


4 


8. 


Labor unions 














9. 


Other 


35 


31 


12 


21 




TOTAL 


114 


100 


55 


100 



T.\ELE IV. Occupation 



1. 




8 


7 


5 


9 


2. 


Sales 


19 


16 


9 


16 


3. 


Clerical 


31 


27 


8 


15 


4. 


Services (excludes domestics) 


10 


9 


4 


7 


5. 


Skilled trades and foremen 


12 


11 


4 


7 


6. 


Semi-skilled and operatives 


24 


21 


20 


37 


7. 




3 


3 








8. 


Other 


7 


6 


5 


9 




TOTAL 


114 


100 


55 


100 



Table V. Source 



1. Filed by individuals 

2. Filed by organizations ... 

3. Initiated by Commission 

4. Other 

TOTAL 



80 


70 


37 


67 














34 


30 


18 


33 














114 


100 


55 


100 



Table VI. Disposition of Closed Cases 



1. Discriminatory practices found 

and adjusted 

2. No discriminatory practices found 

3. Withdrawn by complainant 

4. Dismissed — insufficient evidence 

5. Other 

TOTAL 



52 


46 


33 


60 


39 


34.5 


10 


18 


6 


5 








2 


1.5 


3 


6 


15 


13 


9 


16 


114 


100 


55 


100 



The Commission feels that unlawful employment discrimination based on 
religion is being overcome, but not to the degree that the above statistics show. 
One of the major factors for the low figures is the failure of people to report 
actual instances of discrimination. The Commission believes it is a matter 
of civic responsibility to report instances of violations of the law. 



12 



Educational Activities 

MCAD COUNCIL PROGRAMS 

The Commission is empowered by law to enlist the aid of Councils through- 
out the state. These Councils whose members are appointed by the Commis- 
sion are made up of outstanding citizens who serve without compensation in 
promoting the educational work of the Commission. 

The following is a brief report of the major activity of these Councils. 

State Advisory Council 

Our State Advisory Council whose members formerly made up the Gover- 
nor's Council for Racial and Religious Understanding has met with the Com- 
mission as is customary in the spring and fall to discuss policies and to review 
the activities of the preceding six months. 

Boston Council 

The Boston Council has continued its studies of apprentice training oppor- 
tunities. As a follow-up of the surveys made of 157 companies in the metal 
trades the Commission has met with representatives of those companies which 
had training programs of any type, either formal, informal or on-the-job 
training. These fifty companies have assured the Commission (and have 
granted permission that their names be used) that they will not only employ 
on merit but will train in the same manner. In other words any ambitious 
young person will have an equal chance at all training opportunities irre- 
spective of race, color, religious creed, national origin or ancestry. The 
Commission feels that this list of fifty names will be helpful as reference 
material for teachers in vocational guidance, and placement officials. The 
Boston Council is presently sponsoring a survey of the building trades. 
Thirty-five unions have been contacted. The following questionnaire is being 
used. 

Study of Minority Group Representation in 35 Boston Building Trade 
Unions 

(Racial group: Negro; Religious group: Jewish; Dominant Nationality group: 
Italian) . 

1. Are you familiar with the objectives of the Massachusetts Commission 
Against Discrimination? 

All of the unions replied in the affirmative. 

2. Has there been an increase in the membership of minority group people 
in your union since 1945? 

Twenty unions replied in the affirmative, twelve replied in the negative 
and three did not answer the questions. 

3. Approximately how many were members in — 

1945 1953 

Negroes — 241 Negroes — 659 

Jews — 799 Jews — 753 

Italians— 1969 Italians— 2,944 

N.B. Thirty-one unions answered this question in whole or in part. Four unions 
did not answer the question. Two unions, classified as unskilled, ac- 
counted for 58% of the total Negro membership. 

4. Approximately what was your total membership in — 

1945 1953 
13,372 19,874 
N.B. Twenty-nine unions answered this question; two unions gave partial 
answers and four unions did not give an answer. 



13 



5. Have you had any complaints within your union with regard to any 
form of discrimination? 

Two unions answered in the affirmative; thirty answered in the nega- 
tive and three unions did not answer the question. Both incidents 
of discrimination were reported as satisfactorily adjusted, one as being 
adjusted by this Commission. 

6. Do you have a formal apprenticeship program? 7. Informal program? 

Twenty-four unions have a foimal program; three have informal pro- 
grams; seven reported no program whatsoever and one union did not 
answer the question. 

8. How are selections made for the formal apprentice program? 

In twelve unions the apprentices are selected by a Joint Apprenticeship 
Committee; six unions reported that they did the selecting and six re- 
ported that the apprentice selection was entirely in the hands of the 
employers. 

9. Number of trainees at present? 

936. 

10. Do you have a program of training unskilled people? 

Five unions reported an on-the-job training program. 

11. How many do you have under training at present? 

111. 

12. Of this number how many represent minority groups? 

Negroes — 2 
Jews— 21 
Italians— 20 

Addenda 

Negro representation 

Seventeen union locals had Negro members ranging from one member 
to two hundred in number and each showed an increase from 1945. 
Fifteen union locals had no Negro members although two of these 
locals formerly had Negro representation. 
Three unions did not give any information to this inquiry. 

Jewish representation 

Twenty-five unions reported Jewish members. 
Seven unions had no Jewish members. 
Three unions did not answer this inquiry. 

Italian representation 

Thirty-two unions reported Italian membership representation and 
each union showed an increase of Italian members since 1945. 
Three unions did not answer this inquiry. 

Springfield Council 

The Springfield Council has also been interested in surveying opportunities 
in the metal trades. During 1954 twenty-seven companies were called upon. 
This was done in addition to the study which was reported in our last annual 
report. The Springfield Council anticipates conducting a survey in the building 
trades as its special project for this coming year but wishes to await the re- 
turns on the Boston survey before it commences this operation. 



14 



New Bedford Council 

The New Bedford Council was interested in expanding its membership in 
order to include more representation from various national origin groups. 
This has been accomplished. It now feels it is in a particularly strategic 
position to make a report on intergroup progress in New Bedford. This 
Council did not feel that the community would benefit from the types of 
surveys being made in Boston, Springfield and Worcester but wished to 
place its major emphasis upon collecting actual stories which illustrate 
Americanism at its best. It is hoped that these stories will form the basis 
for a brochure which will be published by the Commission. 

North Shore Council 

The North Shore Council has been carrying on a very extensive survey of 
opportunities in employment. Ninety-seven companies have been surveyed. 

North Shore Survey of Industries and Business Concerns 
Summer-Fall, 195Jf 

Mr. Henry Kozlowski, Chairman of the North Shore MCAD Council, 
selected a cross section of firms numbering ninety-seven located on the North 
Shore. His Council members had voted to make this survey with the assist- 
ance of the Commission. 

Companies ranged in size from fifty employees to 15,000. Among others 
there were shoe manufacturers, machinery manufacturers and leather tan- 
neries. The General Electric Company was the largest concern surveyed. 

A simple questionnaire was used by the field representatives who made 
the survey calls. Four of the ninety-seven companies visited had gone out 
of business. One company refused to give any information whatsoever. 

There follows a summary of answers to the more significant questions asked 
in the survey : 

1. Are you familiar with the objectives of the MCAD? 



Though in each visit explanation was given of the law, those companies 
replying "no" were given special and detailed information on the law 
A copy of the poster and policies of the Commission were left at all 
companies. (A copy of the poster is enclosed with this report.) 

2. Total number of employees 

In ninety-two companies 32,037 

3. What is the predominant nationality group? 

Every company mentioned Italian and Greek. 

4. Approximately how many Negroes are employed? 
In ninety-two companies 137 

5. Approximately how many Jews are employed? 

In ninety-two companies 443 

6. Have there been any incidents among your personnel involving racial 
or religious discrimination? 



In the nine reporting "yes" several of the incidents happened during 
or before World War II. Most were settled by firm management policy 

7. Application forms 



Yes 
No. 



44 
48 



Yes 
No 



9* 
83 



Containing violations 

No violations 

None used 



26* 
14 

52 



* Of fonns containing violations three had questions pertaining to birthplace. All of the 
other forms contained violations with respect to birthdate. 



15 



Worcester Council 

Last year the Worcester Council appointed three sub-committees to study 
employment and apprentice training opportunities. These committees — In- 
dustry, Labor and Massachusetts State Employment Service, Mr. Frederick 
H. Case, Jr., Field Representative, Public Relations Department, U. S. Steel 
Company, Chairman; Social Agencies, Mr. Lyscom A. Bruce, Secretary, Com- 
munity Chest of Worcester, Chairman; Schools, Mr. Thomas F. Power, Super- 
intendent, School Department, Chairman — gave most excellent and interesting 
reports to the entire council membership. As a result of their studies it was 
felt that the next move should be to approach leaders in the Negro Community 
in order that they might assist council members in acquainting Negro youth 
in Worcester with the opportunities that are open to them. At a meeting 
of the Worcester Council the following people volunteered to arrange for a 
workshop on employment opportunities: 

Mr. George Strait, Law Library, Court House; 

Mr. Daniel J. Casale, Manager, Division of Employment Security; 
Mrs. Daniel Farber, President, Interracial Council of Worcester; 
Miss Anna Mays, NAACP; 

Mr. Thomas E. Christensen, Director of Guidance in the public schools; 
Mr. Roy H. Stevens, Jr., Field Representative, United Steel Workers of 

America, CIO; 
Mr. Erill Hawley, Worcester Police Department. 

This workshop will be held either over a weekend or during the spring va- 
cation at the offices of the Massachusetts State Employment Service in 
Worcester. 

As has been stated previously only the major activity of each Council has 
been covered in this report. There has been no attempt to outline their week 
by w^eek influence on their communities through talks, informal luncheons, and 
the most potent power of example. One of the greatest helps that our Councils 
give to the Commission is in enlisting the interest and cooperation of local 
people. If these people have confidence in our council members, they are very 
apt to transfer that confidence to us. 

Radio Broadcasts 

Our program on Radio Station WBMS has continued throughout the year. 
A series of broadcasts was given in the spring covering the work of the 
Commission. This series was handled by members of the Commission and 
covered every phase of our work including the account of a few sample cases 
which seemed to be of especial interest. 

This fall Mrs. Mildred H. Mahoney, Chairman of the Commission, inter- 
viewed representatives from various cooperating agencies as follows: October 
27th, Mr. Robert E. Segal, Executive Director, Jewish Community Council; 
November 3rd, Mr. Gerald A. Berlin, Director, American Jewish Congress; 
November 10th, Mr. Julius Bernstein, Executive Secretary, Boston Labor 
Committee to Combat Intolerance; November 24th, Mr. Ben G. Shapiro, Sec- 
retary, Massachusetts Committee Catholics, Protestants and Jews; and De- 
cember 1st, Mr. Thomas J. Curtin, Director of American Citizenship, Massa- 
chusetts Department of Education. 

In each instance the discussion centered on these topics: 

1. Aims of the organization represented. 

2. Areas of cooperative activity. 

3. Effective illustration of this cooperation. 

The Commission is very grateful for the help that it has received from 
these agencies, and is happy to welcome this opportunity to acknowledge it 
publicly. 



16 



NAIRO 

This year the National Association of Intergroup Relations Officials held 
its eighth annual conference in Boston. Mrs. Mildred H. Mahoney, Chairman, 
Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination and Mr. Thomas C. Heffer- 
nan, Administrative Assistant to the Superintendent of Schools, Boston School 
Department, and formerly Executive Secretary, Mayor's Civic Improvement 
Committee acted as co-chairmen. 

This conference brought to Boston representatives of both public and 
private agencies. It is the only national organization which includes both 
groups and because of this and the calibre of its personnel it is ver>' in- 
fluential. The program included reports by five commissions: 

Commission on Nature, Scope and Theory of Intergroup Relations 

Commission on Civic Rights 

Commission on Education 

Commission on Housing and Family Life 

Commission on Manpower Utilization 

Reports were presented also by: 

Department of Local Public Service 

Department of State Public Service 

Department of Local and State Services 

Department of National Private Services 

Department of Federal Services 

Department of Research Services 

The following local people took part: 

Oscar W. Haussermann, Chairman, Massachusetts Committee Catholics, 

Protestants and Jews 
Dr. Kenneth D. Benne, Director, Boston University Human Relations 

Center 

The Very Rev. Francis J. Lally, Editor of "The Pilot" 

Dr. Franklin P. Hawkes, Director, Fair Educational Practices, Massa- 
chusetts Department of Education 

Thomas J. Curtin, Director of American Citizenship, Massachusetts 
Department of Education 

Dr. Clarence Quimby, Headmaster of Cushing Academy 

Dr. John M. Tobin, Superintendent of Schools, Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Robert E. Segal, Executive Director, Jewish Community Council of Metro- 
politan Boston 

Dr. Gordon W. Allport, Professor of Psychology in the Department of 
Social Relations, Harvard University. 

Walter H. Nolan, Executive Secretary, Massachusetts Commission Against 
Discrimination 

Colonel Larkland F. Hewitt, President, Boston Branch, National Associ- 
ation for the Advancement of Colored People 

Sol Kolack, New England Regional Director, Anti-Defamation League 
of B'nai B'rith, Boston 

Marion S. English, Executive Director, Urban League of Boston 

Miss Carol M. Smith, Chairman, Educational Committee, National Con- 
ference of Christians and Jews 

Isadore Zack, Executive Secretary, Anti-Defamation League of B'nai 
B'rith, Boston 



17 



The Massachusetts Committee Catholics, Protestants and Jews defrayed 
the general expenses of this conference. 

The delegates were most appreciative of Massachusetts hospitality. Mayor 
John B. Hynes gave a breakfast for the delegates and also provided bus 
trips for the members who were interested in seeing the historic sights of Bos- 
ton. This occurred on the first day of the conference. 

Governor Christian A. Herter gave a luncheon for the officers and chairmen 
on the last day of the conference. 

The co-chairmen have received many letters expressing the appreciation 
of the delegates not only for the gracious hospitality afforded them but also 
for the quality of the meetings. 

Conferences 

The Commission feels that one of its most important educational activities 
may well come under the heading of conferences. There is in its opinion 
no substitute for a direct exchange of opinion which is possible when people 
meet face to face and are able to discuss fully a problem which concerns 
them. Because of this conviction the Commission is most happy to welcome 
visitors to the office who seek detailed information about the law. 

As an illustration of some of the topics discussed at such conferences we 
list the following: 



Name and Title 

Mr. Hubert L. Connor, Director 
Mass. Division of Apprentice Train- 
ing 

Herald-Traveler Editors 



Mr. Thomas J. Curtin, Director of 
American Citizenship, Massachusetts 
Department of Education 

Representative Mary Newman, Mr. 
Charles Bresnahan, State Sub-Com- 
mittee Investigating Communism 

Dr. Dennis Haley, Superintendent 
Boston School System 

Mr. M. Norcross Stratton, Director 
Division of Vocational Education 
State Department of Education 

Boston Housing Authority 

Conference of Commissions Against 
Discrimination in Philadelphia 



National Legal Staff of the NAACP, 

Dallas, Texas 

Mr. Luther MacNair, Civil Liberties 
Union 



Topic 

Opportunities for all young men in 
the apprentice training program ir- 
respective of color, religion and na- 
tionality. 

Elimination of newspaper publicity 
that can be interpreted as discrimina- 
tory. 

Racial Tensions and Delinquency. 



In the opinion of the Commission have 
communists complained of discrimina- 
tion. 

Guidance and vocational guidance in 
the Boston School System. 

Guidance and vocational guidance in 
the Massachusetts School Systems. 

Tenancy procedures as to qualifica- 
tions of people seeking public housing. 

Reports concerning the activities of 
governmental agencies in this field 
and cooperative programs. 

Discrimination towards the colored 
group in the United States. 

Problems in employment discrimina- 
tion. 



18 



Professor Arch R. Dooley, Harvard 
Business School 



Miss Barbara York, Reporter for 
Boston Herald-Traveler 



S^. Albert M. Murphy 
Spring-field Police Department 



Mr. John J. Horan, President Boston 
City Wide Council, CIO YWCA 

Mrs. Muriel C. Javelin, Deputy Su- 
pervisor, In Charge of Work with 
Adults, Boston Public Library 

Mr. William L. Stoddard, Vice-Presi- 
dent, Lincoln and Terese Filene 
Foundation 

Mr. Myron J. Files, Assistant Security 
Officer, Lynn Plant, General Electric. 
Mr. Gene A. Goldjen, Security Officer, 
Cincinnati Plant, General Electric. 
Mr. Charles J. Steele, General Coun- 
sel, Cincinnati Plant, General Electric. 

Mr. Oliver Wolifier, Representative of 
the Government of Africa. 

Professor Archibald Cox, Harvard 
Law School 

Professor Ralph Goldstein, Boston 
University Law School. 



Discussion of theoretical problems in 
industry relating to integration of 
minority groups. 

Discussion of feature stories dealing 
with fair emplo>Tnent practice legis- 
lation. 

Training session for Springfield 
Police Officers concerning group rela- 
tions. 

Educational work of the CIO. 



Training of selected leaders from 
Community Organizations in problems 
of intergroup relations. 

Planning of pamphlet material for 
Commission use. 



Security regulations and questions 
that must be asked when people are 
tentatively hired for classified work. 



Administration of the MCAD laws. 



Conferences on exploration of legal 
theories involving the duties of labor 
unions under the fair employment 
practice law. 



Cooperative Activities 

This past year the Commission has not been able to distribute as widely 
as requests have demanded its unit of study "Discrimination — Danger to 
Democracy". The requests for this unit have been stimulated by teacher 
training courses given by Mr. Thomas J. Curtin, Director of American Citi- 
zenship, State Department of Education. Mr. Curtin has advocated the 
use of this pamphlet and representatives of the Commission have also par- 
ticipated in his courses. The Commission is planning to revise and reprint 
"Discrimination — Danger to Democracy" and send it out with copies of the 
annual report. 

The Newsletter "Toward Racial and Religious Understanding", in former 
years a quarterly, this year has been limited to semi-annual appearances but 
these issues have been voluminous and have contained very interesting reports 
from twenty-five public and private agencies that contribute to it. 

The Commission is grateful to the many organizations for inviting speakers 
to address their membership on the activities of the M.C.A.D. This seems 
to be one of the best ways of promoting public understanding and support 
which is so essential to the success of this type of social legislation. 

The State Department has sent copies of "The Wiser Course?", an article 
appearing in the Harvard Alumni Bulletin of October 23, 1954, to a number of 
foreign countries. This article, written by Commissioner Elwood S. McKenney, 
describes the philosophy and activities of the Massachusetts Cominission 



19 



Against Discrimination. It was sent to these foreign countries in the hopes 
that it would in some degree offset propaganda that the United States of 
America oppresses minority groups, in particular the Xegro group. 

Information concerning attempts to correct discrimination should create 
better understanding and appreciation of our country. 

State Advisory Council Membership 

John J. Desmond, Jr., Chairman, Commissioner of Education 

Rt. Rev. Robert P. Barry, LL.D., St. Clement's Church, Trustee of 

Massachusetts General Hospital 
Thomas H. Carens, Vice-President in charge of Public Relations, Boston 

Edison Company 

Charles C. Dasey, Retired, Manager, Cunard White Star, Ltd. 
Judge Jacob J. Kaplan, former president, Boston Bar Association. 

Regional Council Membership 

Springfield 
Charles V. Ryan, Esq., Chairman 

Mrs. Richard B. Anderson, League of Women Voters 
Archie Burack, Treasurer and General Manager, Industrial Buildings 
Corporation 

Robert G. Bleakney, General Superintendent, New England Telephone & 

Telegraph Company 
John H. Breck, Jr., John H. Breck, Incorporated 

George C. Gordon, National Association for the Advancement of Colored 
People 

Miss Alice L. Halligan, Director. Bureau of Guidance, Placement and 
Adult Education, Springfield School Department 

Robert W. Hutton, Secretary, Employer's' Association of Western Massa- 
chusetts 

Mrs. Thelma L. Keitlen, Community Consultant, Western Massachusetts 

Area, Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith 
Dr. Howard P. Kennedy 
Raymond T. King, Esquire 

Alexander B. Mapp, Executive Secretary, Urban League of Springfield 

Roger L. Putnam, President, Package Machinery Company 

Mrs. Roger L. Putnam, Springfield Housing Authority 

Frederick B. Robinson, Director, Springfield Museum of Fine Arts 

Mrs. Charles V. Ryan 

James J. Shea, President. Milton-Bradley Company 
Charles ViVenzio, Member, Local 202, lUE-CIO 

Boston 

Paul T. Roth well. Chairman, President, Bay State Milling Company 
Norman H. Abbott, Director, Boston University Placement Service 
J. William Belanger, President, Mass. State CIO 

Julius Bernstein, Executive Secretary, Boston Labor Committee to Combat 
Intolerance 

Salvatore Camelio, Secretary-Treasurer, Mass. State CIO, District Di- 
rector, United Rubber Workers, CIO. 
Frederic C. Church. Senior Partner, Boit, Dalton & Church 



20 



John V. Connolly, Executive Secretary, Allied Printing Trades Council 
Hubert L. Connor Director, Massachusetts Division of Apprentice Training 
Abram T. Collier, 2nd Vice-President, John Hancock Mutual Life In- 
surance Company 

Frederick A. Cosgrove, Vice-President, Personnel, New England Tele- 
phone & Telegraph Company 
Norris G. Davis, Member, Business & Professional Men's Club 
John E. Deady, Secretary-Treasurer, Building and Construction Trades 

Council, Metropolitan District 
Harry Grages, Chairman, State Labor Relations Board 
Harold D. Hodgkinson, Vice-President & General Manager, William 
Filene's Sons Company, Chairman of the Board, The Federal Reserve 
Bank of Boston 

Ernest A. Johnson, Commissioner, Massachusetts Department of Labor 
and Industries 

Michael T. Kelleher, Vice-President, Marsh & McLennan, Inc. 

Kenneth J. Kelley, Secretary-Treasurer & Legislative Agent, Mass. State 

Federation of Labor 
G. Herbert Marcy, Vice-President, Gillette Safety Razor Company 
Stephen E. McCloskey, Secretary, Treasurer and Business Agent, Central 

Labor Union 

Thomas A. Pappas, President, C. Pappas Company, Inc. 

Colonel Leonard T. Peters, Peters Employment Service 

Sidney R. Rabb, Chairman of the Board, Stop & Shop, Inc. 

Arthur Sesserman, Executive Secretary, National Metal Trades Associa- 
tion, Boston Branch 

F. Frank Vorenberg, President, Gilchrist Company, Vice-President 
United Community Services, Trustee of Five Cents Savings Bank 

Leslie Woods, Director of Industrial Relations, Raytheon Manufacturing 
Company 

Worcester 

Andrew B. Holmstrom, Chairman, Vice-President, Norton Company 
Mrs. Laurence J. Bouchard, Massachusetts Parent Teachers Association 
Lyscom A. Bruce, Secretary, Community Chest of Worcester 
Reverend Hubert C. Callaghan, S.J., Holy Cross College 
Daniel J. Casale, Manager, Division of Employment Security 
Frederick H. Case, Jr., Field Representative, Public Relations, U. S. Steel 

Company 
Samuel J. Donnelly, A. F. of L. 

Gardener C. DeMallie, President, Family Service Organization 
S. R. Duryee, Treasurer, Wyman-Gordon Company 
Mrs. Katherine F. Erskine, Member, School Committee of Worcester 
Mrs. Daniel Farber, President, Interracial Council of Worcester 
Judge Joseph Goldberg, Chairman, Worcester Area Committee, Anti- 
Defamation League of B'nai B'rith 
Rev. Hartley Grandin, President, Greater Worcester Area Council of 
Churches 

Mrs. Marion Hallock, League of Women Voters 
Milton P. Higgins, President, Norton Company 
Mrs. Charles J. Hudson, League of Women Voters 
Dr. Howard B. Jefferson, President, Clark University 



21 

Rabbi Joseph Klein, Temple Emanuel 

Miss Anna Mays, National Association for the Advancement of Colored 
People 

John F. Mitchell, Treasurer, Reed Rolled Thread Die Company 
Philip M. Morgan, President, Morgan Construction Company 
Mrs. Arthur G. Perry, Worcester Council of Mothers' Clubs 
Mrs. Thomas L. Porter 

Thomas L. Power, Superintendent, School Department 
George A. Roberts, National Association for the Advancement of Colored 
People 

Miss Julia E. Robinson, Board of Public Welfare 

Mrs. Dorothy L, Salter, Salter Secretarial School 

Miss Mildred L. Savacool, Young Women's Christian Association 

Paul W. Spaulding, President, John C. Maclnnes Company 

Roy H. Stevens, Jr., United Steel Workers of America, CIO 

Judge Carl E. Wahlstrom 

Dr. Joseph Weinreb, Worcester Youth Center 



Xeiv Bedford 

Alvah G. Patterson, Chairynan, Director of Industrial Relations, Hatha- 
way Manufacturing Company 
Miss Laurinda Andrade, New Bedford High School 

Judge Samuel Barnet, Special Justice, Third District Court, Bristol 
County 

Henry A. Bartkiewicz, Esquire 

Miss Annette Begin, Head of French Department, New Bedford High 
School 

Walter Bonner, New Bedford High School 
W. Kenneth Burke, Superintendent of Schools 

George E. Carignan, Director, New Bedford Joint Board, Textile Workers 
Union of America, CIO 

Miss Joy E. Colvin, Executive Director, Young Women's Christian Asso- 
ciation 

Joseph Dawson, President, Knowles Loom Reed Works 

Mrs. Dorothy D. L. Stahre, Principal, Cedar Grove School, American 

Federation of Teachers, A. F. of L. 
Joseph A. DeSousa, Director, Adult Civic Education Department, New 

Bedford School Department 
Joseph Duchaine, President, My Bread Baking Company 
Alfred J. Gomes, Esquire 

Reverend Edward A. Hailes, Union Baptist Church 

Harold Hurwitz, Esquire, Past State President, Junior Chamber of Com- 
merce 

Walter S. MacPhail, Wamsutta Mills 

George F. McGovern, Works Manager, Revere Copper & Brass Company 
C. Dudley Onley, Secretary, New Bedford Branch, National Association 

for the Advancement of Colored People 
Miss Susan E. Shennan, Director, Vocational Guidance and Placement, 

New Bedford School Department 
Fermino J. Spencer, Allen F. Wood School 



22 



Fred W. Steele, Executive Secretary, New Bedford Cotton Manufacturers 

Association 
Representative Joseph A. Sylvia, Jr. 

Dr. Xenophon Thomas, National Association for the Advancement of 
Ck)lored People 

Philip F. Tripp, Executive Director, New Bedford Housing Authority 
Mrs. Francis S. Winsper, Vice-Chairman, New Bedford Council of Social 

Agencies, League of Women Voters 
Donald Zeman, Esquire 

Mrs. Anthony Zielinski, Vice-President, Polish National Alliance; Vice- 
President, Women's Republican Club; Trustee, Polish- American 
Veterans Auxiliary. 

North Shore 

Henry Kozlowski, Chairman, Treasurer, Jackson & Phillips Inc. 
Anthony Athanas, President, Hawthorne Restaurants Inc. 
Mrs. Mary F. Berlyn, Supervisor, Adult Civic Education, Lynn Public 
Schools 

Abraham Caswell, Treasurer, Caswell-Doucette Shoe Company 
Thomas D. Chatfield, President, Essex Trust Company 
Thomas J. Curtin, Director of American Citizenship, State Department 
of Education 

Miss Louise B. Day, Chief Librarian, Lynn Public Library 
Mrs. Solomon Feldman, Member, Jewish Community Center of Greater 
Lynn 

Abraham Glovsky, Esquire, Glovsky & Glovsky 

Francis L. Keane, Director, Pupil Adjustment & Occupational Placement, 

Lynn Public Schools 
Mrs. Doris Latimer, Librarian, Lynn ITEM 

Mrs. Jack Lerner, Vice-President, Swampscott-Marblehead Chapter, Anti- 
Defamation League of B'nai B'rith 

John M. Lilly, General Secretary, Young Men's Christian Association 

William Nealey, Sec.-Treas. Local 42, Truck Drivers Union, A. F. of L. 

Chester C. Nemphos, Legislative Agent and Member, Civil Rights Com- 
mittee, Local 201, lUE-CIO 

Norman J. Randell, Manager, Plant Community Relations, General Elec- 
tric Company 

Theodore Regnante, Esquire, President, Lynn Bar Association; Member 

Board of Directors, BEES Club 
Armand J. St. Laurent 

Reverend Claude H. Voorheis, Chairman, Saugus Community Relations 

Committee; Pastor, Community Methodist Church 
Dr. William D. Washington 



Public Document 



No. 163rD 



EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

ANNUAL REPORT 

of the 

JIassachusetts Commi ssio n 
Against Discrimination 

Mildred H. Mahoney, Chairman 
George W. Cashman, Commissioner 
William D. Washington, Commissioner 




November 30, 1954 to November 30, 1955 

41 Tremont Street 
Boston, Massachusetts 



Publication of this Document Approved by George J. Cronin, State Purchasing Agent 
4m-2-56-916873 



CONTENTS 

PREFACE . . STATE eas i C'-o. • • • • 8 

A List of Civil Rights Statutes Administered by the Commission 4 

ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES '^A^S ORnOAI-S .... 5 

Complaints and Investigations 5 

Investigations — Age Amendment 5 

Investigations — Public Accommodations 5 

Investigations — Public Housing 6 

Selected Case Histories 8 

Statistical Report 10 

Conferences 10 

EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES 12 

State Advisory Council 12 

Regional Councils 

Boston Council 12 

New Bedford Council 13 

North Shore Council 13 

Springfield Council 13 

Worcester Council 14 

Meetingrs with Officers of the Division of Employment Security . 14 

Cooperation with State Department of Education .... 14 

State Advisory Council Memibership . . . . . . 15 

Regional Council Membership 

Boston 15 

New Bedford 16 

North Shore 17 

Springfield 17 

Worcester 18 



1956 
3 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
MASSACHUSETTS COMMISSION AGAINST DISCRIMINATION 

Preface 

Do you think ten years is a significant period in which a social experiment 
can pretty well prove whether or not it is worthwhile? If so, please continue 
to read because in May, 1946, just a little short of ten years ago, Massachu- 
setts became the third state in the United States to write into law the long 
held principle that a person should be employed on a job commensurate with 
his ability. He should not be denied that opportunity because of race, color, 
religious creed, national origin or ancestry. 

That was the beginning. By some it was viewed with alarm. We believe that 
fear has gone. We believe that most people who know of the Commission 
have confidence in its integrity and feel that the laws it administers strengthen 
our social structure. Fortunately for us, many people seem to be born with a 
sense of fair play or acquire it easily. They appreciate that the only thing 
that binds Americans together — Americans of every race, religion and national 
origin — is a belief in and a will to preserve our precious heritage of freedom 
and opportunity for all; and to evaluate everyone on the basis of individual 
worth. 

The Commission has been privileged to take part in an experiment in human 
relations. In the next few pages we want to tell you about it. 



Introduction 

Very often the Commission is asked to state most briefly its duties and how 
it operates. The next few paragraphs contain such a summary. The rest of 
this report amplifies it. 

The original Fair Employment Practice Law was passed in 1946. In 1950, 
the present name, the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination, was 
adopted. Formerly, the Commission had been known as the Massachusetts 
Fair Employment Practice Commission. The change of name was occasioned 
because of increased jurisdiction. In 1950, age, defined as between forty-five 
and sixty-five, was added to the Fair Employment Practice provisions. A 
second amendment made it unlawful to discriminate in places of public 
accommodation or to use discriminatory advertising concerning such places. 
At the same time segregation and discrimination were forbidden in public 
housing. 

The Commission believes that the wording of the law itself has contributed 
largely to its success. The law provides that when a complaint is made to the 
Commission an investigating commissioner must attempt to settle the com- 
plaint in a conference period. If he fails in the conference period he must then 
refer the complaint to the other two commissioners for a hearing. Up to date 
the Commission has had to have only two such hearings. It has been able to 
accomplish everything that it could accomplish during a hearing in the con- 
ference period; complainants have received positions, have been upgraded 
and have been returned to employment after having been unjustly discharged. 

Discrimination in places of public accommodation is being corrected and a 
degree of integration is now shown in new public housing. 

The law also provides for an educational program. It empowers the Com- 
mission to appoint interested civic minded people who serve without com- 
pensation on councils which aid in the educational work. These councils (of 



4 



which there are five) located in Springfield, Boston, New Bedford, Worcester 
and Lynn, have in addition to other projects aided the Commission in making 
a series of surveys. Surveys are conducted on a purely educational basis 
since no case is involved and they help the Commission become better 
acquainted with the business community. Inquiries are made as to the pattern 
of employment, what groups are employed and at what levels. This informa- 
tion could not be obtained without the full cooperation of industry. Later 
surveys also made in cooperation with the councils have studied apprentice 
training opportunities in order to determine that all minority groups get 
an equal chance. 

In surveys of training opportunities, a number of agencies have been 
involved in a cooperative manner including the Division of Apprentice Train- 
ing, industry, labor unions, schools, social agencies and employment agencies. 
The help of the councils in introducing the Commission to their communities 
and in enlisting the interest of the cooperating groups has been incalculable. 

The Commission also believes emphatically in the personal approach. It 
seeks conferences, especially with people affected by the law. This means 
employers of over six, labor unions, employment agencies, operators of places 
of public accommodation and public housing officials. 

Schools have been most helpful. A pamphlet entitled, "Discrimination — 
Danger to Democracy" written for high school students is widely used 
throughout the state. 

Another type of education is done through investigation. Certain groups 
are exempted from the provisions of the law, such as a club exclusively social, 
or a fraternal, charitable, educational or religious association or corporation 
which is not organized for private profit. 

When a case of alleged discrimination is reported in such an agency and 
assuming that the case seems to have some merit, the agency is asked if it 
would like to send a representative to meet with the Commission. It is thor- 
oughly understood that this invitation involves no legal obligation to attend. 
In every instance up to date, agencies so invited have responded and have 
welcomed a chance to present their side of the story. 

This is not a complete account of Commission work during the past nine 
years. It is an attempt to comment briefly on some aspects of its two-fold 
program: 1. law enforcement and 2. education. 

The help of our Councils, many other groups in the community and a 
general climate of public acceptance has made possible whatever successes 
the Commission has achieved. 



A List of Civil Rights Statutes Administered hy the Commission 

Chapter 368 of the Legislative Acts of 1946 brought into being the original 
Fair Employment Practice Commission as well as the Fair Employment 
Practice Law, Chapter 151 B of the General Laws. 

AMENDMENTS 

Chapter 479 of the Legislative Acts of 1950 changed the name of the Com- 
mission to its present one, Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination, 
and also increased the scope and jurisdiction of the Commission by placing 
with the Commission the administration of the Public Accommodations Statute 
and the Public Housing Statute. 

Chapter 697 of the Legislative Acts of 1950 increased the scope of the fair 
employment practice statute to include age (45-65). 

Chapter 4S7 of the Legislative Acts of 1953 further defined a place of 
public accommodation, resort or place of amusement. 



5 



Chapter 27 U of the Legislative Acts of 1955 provided that any person 
seeking a bond or surety bond conditioned upon the faithful performance of 
his duties shall not be required to furnish information as to his race, color, 
religious creed, national origin or ancestry in applying for such a bond. 

Note: Chapter 274 was the only addition to the statutes in 1955. The Com- 
mission sent notices to all industries which might be affected by the 
provisions of this new law. 



Enforcement Activities 

Complaints and Investigations 

This, the tenth annual report, covers the period from November 30, 1954- 
November 30, 1955. During this time the Massachusetts Commission Against 
Discrimination initiated, received and processed 284 matters involving un- 
lawful discrimination in employment because of race, color, religious creed, 
national origin, age or ancestry. 

In addition to this, the field representatives have called upon 354 companies 
in selected areas of the state to explain the operation of the age amendment 
in greater detail; to make sure that any changes which are necessary are 
made on application blanks and that a summary of the law is posted in a 
conspicuous place. Of this number it was necessary for 124 companies to 
change their application for employment forms. 

The Commission processed 27 matters pertaining to discrimination in places 
of public accommodation because of religion, color, or race. 

A survey is made each year of public housing. No case involving public 
housing has as yet been presented to the Commission. 

In accordance with Commission policy each complaint closed is given a 
follow-up survey six months following its closing. 

This year forty-five such cases were accorded the sixth month survey. In 
each instance the terms of conciliation as agreed upon by the parties in 
interest were in effect. 

Investigations — Age Amendment 

The educational-regulatory policy instituted by the Commission when it was 
given the additional duty to administer Chapter 697 of the Legislative Acts 
of 1950 (age amendment) was continued during the past year. 

Periodic checks were made of the help wanted advertisements of all the 
daily and weekly newspapers published in the Commonwealth. Notices were 
sent to 786 employers and employment agencies bringing to their attention 
specific violations and requesting a statement as to the reasons for specifying 
age directly or indirectly. 

735 of those contacted pleaded ignorance of the law, and stated in writing 
their compliance with the law in future help wanted advertising. 

51 business organizations requested an exemption based on the premise that 
age constituted a bona fide occupational qualification. Five of these requests 
were approved. 

Investigations — Public Accommodations 

In May of 1950 the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination was 
empowered to administer the public accommodations statute, Chapter 272, 
Section 98 of the General Laws (Ter. Ed.). 

As part of the administration of the statute, each year all resort hotels 
within the Commonwealth are contacted and requested to send copies of any 
material which they use in advertising for a review by the Commission. 



6 



This year the Commission reviewed the advertising brochures of 335 resort 
hotels. All were found to be in complete compliance with the law. 

In addition to these contacts which were established through the mail, field 
representatives have called upon 58 resort hotels and motels in order to 
explain in more detail the operation of the law and to receive from the 
proprietor a statement that he complies with it. In each instance material 
concerning the Commission was left including a summary of the law which 
was to be posted. 

Since this law is relatively new, the Commission was pleased with the 
degree of understanding and cooperation which was revealed by these visits. 



Investigations — Public Housing 

As has been stated before in May of 1950 Chapter 479 of the Legislative 
Acts of that year was given to the Commission to administer. This statute 
provides that there be no segregation nor discrimination in Public Housing 
because of race, color or religious creed. 

As part of the administration of the public housing statute, surveys are 
made each year of individual Housing Authorities throughout the state. 

In the main. State Housing provides housing units for veterans and Federal 
Housing provides housing units for low income groups and veterans. 

This year the following Housing Authorities were surveyed: 
Boston Lynn 
Cambridge New Bedford 

Holyoke Springfield 
Worcester 



BOSTON HOUSING AUTHORITY SURVEY 

According to the Boston Housing Authority there are no official records 
maintained to show just how many Negro families are housed in the develop- 
ments under its jurisdiction. 

In order to report factually as to the compliance with the Public Housing 
Statute, staff members of the Commission have begun an on-the-spot tenant 
survey of the Boston Housing developments. 

The survey is not complete. A partial report follows: 



State 


White 


Colored 


Camden Street 


1 


71 


Commonwealth Avenue 


633 


15 


Franklin Field 


488 


16 


Broadway, South Boston 


968 


4 


Federal 






Lenox Street 





306 


Whittier Street 


28 


172 


South End 


282 


226 


Mission Hill Extension 


327 


261 


Heath Street 


416 


4 


Bromley Park 


582 


150 


Franklin Hill Avenue 


357 


18 



7 



CAMBRIDGE HOUSING AUTHORITY 



State 


White 


Colored 


Woodrow Wilson Court 


63 


7 


Jefferson Park 


101 


10 


Lincoln Way 


58 


3 


F. D. Roosevelt Towers 


214 


17 


Jackson Gardens 


44 


2 


Jefferson Park Extension 


189 


10 


Federal 






Washinigton Elms 


299 


29 


Putnam Gardens 


60 


48 


Newtowne Court 


287 


9 


Corcoran Park 


91 


5 



HOLYOKE HOUSING AUTHORITY 

Despite the fact that the Holyoke Authority has published statements in 
the local press declaring that its policy is one of integration, no colored 
families have applied during this past year who were willing to pay the 
rent asked for the housing units. Holyoke, therefore, through no fault of the 
Authority seems to be the only large city which does not show an integrated 
pattern in new public housing developments. 



LYNN HOUSING AUTHORITY 

State White Colored 

Chestnut Street 75 2 

Green and Howard Streets 48 

America Park 380 14 

Federal 

Curwin Circle 264 22 

NEW BEDFORD HOUSING AUTHORITY 

State White Colored 

Parkdale 93 6 

Blue Meadows 132 15 

Nashmont 79 

Federal 

Bay Village 90 110 

President Heights 194 2 

Brickenwood 266 2 

Westlawn 159 40 

SPRINGFIELD HOUSING AUTHORITY 

State White Colored 

Reed Village 187 13 

Robinson Park 132 4 

Duggan Park 191 5 

Federal 

Lucy Mallary Village 237 6 



8 



WORCESTER HOUSING AUTHORITY 



State 
Federal 



White 
588 
591 



Colored 
6 
9 



Each Housing Authority surveyed used tenant application forms which in 
no way revealed the race, color or religious creed of the applicant. 

With the exception of the Boston Housing Authority, records were main- 
tained of the race or color of the tenants housed in Federal Housing. The 
maintenance of these records is requested by the Federal Government and is 
in no way in conflict with the public housing statute. 

All of the Housing Authority surveys show a definite program of integration 
successfully in effect. 

Selected Case Histories 

1. Color Discrimination in Employment. Case No. X-40-C 

On April 26, 1955 there was filed with this Commission a verified com- 
plaint which alleged that a company had refused employment to the com- 
plainant solely because of his color. 

Obtaining information that a company was seeking men having a particular 
skill, the complainant telephoned the company and spoke to its superintendent. 

The complainant alleges that the superintendent made inquiries over the 
phone into his background and work experiences. The complainant further 
alleges that the superintendent hired him for one of three positions then open 
on the night shift. He was told the starting rate and was asked to report the 
next day to fill out a personnel record form and to take a physical exam- 
ination. This telephone interview took place on April 4, 1955. 

The complainant reported to the plant the following day. 

The superintendent, upon being told by the complainant that he was the 
man hired the day before, denied that he had hired the complainant or had 
given the impression of having hired the complainant. The complainant was 
told that if needed he would be contacted in two or three days, a week at 
the longest. 

At the end of the week the complainant alleges that after six attempts to 
reach the superintendent he finally got through only to be told that the jobs 
had been filled by employees of a firm which had recently been purchased 
by the respondent. 

The investigation disclosed that two men were hired, one on April 25 and 
the other on April 28, 1955. Both men had been referred to the company by 
an employment agency which had been solicited by the company to furnish 
applicants the week following the attempt by the complainant to obtain work 
with this company. 

The third opening had been filled a week previous by an employee of 
respondent's predecessor at this location. 

The investigating commissioner assigned to this complaint found probable 
cause to exist and, as specified in the law, endeavored immediately to con- 
ciliate the matter. 

Company officials were reminded of their obligations under the law. Arrange- 
ments were made to give the complainant the next opening in the plant in his 
particular craft or as near to the pay schedule of his craft as possible. 

The following week the complainant reported his employment with the com- 
pany at a comparable job rating to his skill with a promise to be upgraded 
at the first opportunity. 

A follow-up study of this complaint revealed the company officials highly 
laudatory of the complainant's ability, so much so that they have accepted 
two other colored employees recommended by this complainant. 



9 



2. Age Discrimination in Employynent. Case No. AV-5U-A 

In February of this year a complaint was filed with the Commission by a 
woman, age 60, employed in a large plant located in Central Massachusetts. 

The allegation of the complaint was that the respondent had refused to 
allow her to exercise seniority rights, solely because of her age, in trans- 
ferring to a job for which she was qualified. The request for the transfer 
was precipitated hy a lay-off then being put into effect throughout the plant. 

Investigation revealed that the job to which she had requested a transfer 
was a job which she had performed previously although on a temporary basis 
for eight months prior to the lay-off. 

The investigation f urther revealed that a much younger woman, having less 
service with the respondent than the complainant, had been assigned to the job. 

In addition, it was developed that 90% of the work in the section of the 
plant to which the transfer request was made was done by females so that 
the contention of the respondent that the work was too heavy for the com- 
plainant did not in and of itself establish the physical requirements for the job. 

A meeting was held in the office of the Commission at which all parties in 
interest and their attorneys were present. The meeting, informal in nature^ 
was conducted by the investigating commissioner, who guided both sides to 
present the pertinent facts of the case. 

Enough facts having been produced to substantiate the allegation contained 
in the complaint, the investigating commissioner successfully accomplished a 
conciliation of the complaint and the complainant was returned to the job to 
which she had requested transfer and with no loss of seniority rights. 

3. Color Discrimination in a Place of Public Accommodation. Case No. PV-l-C 

A complaint was filed with the Commission against a place of public accom- 
modation which followed the line of not directly refusing service to colored 
people but using subterfuge to accomplish the same result. 

Three Negroes, two men and a woman, entered a cafe at about 11:15 P.M. 
and occupied a vacant booth. 

Fifteen minutes elapsed before a waitress appeared at the booth. In 
addition to the menu the waitress presented a card on which was printed in 
pencil "Minimum charge — $4.50 per person." The waitress is alleged to have 
stated that since it was rather late she did not think that she could serve the 
party with drinks and that therefore it would not be worth the paying of the 
minimum charge. 

The complainant observed a party of white people, one of whose members 
he knew. He approached the party and inquired as to whether a minimum 
charge of $4.50 per person was being placed on them. The answer was in the 
negative. The white party had never seen the minimum charge card in all of 
their visits to this cafe. 

The complainant and his friends waited until midnight and not having been 
served left the cafe. 

Investigation included the taking of sworn statements from the members of 
the white party who were present the night of the incident and who had 
observed the card bearing the inscription ''Minimum charge — $4.50 per 
person." 

Probable cause was found to exist. 

The terms of conciliation included a letter of apology to the complainant; 
an invitation to the complainant to patronize this establishment; a statement 
of policy to the Commission of future compliance with the law and the 
indoctrination of all personnel with the provisions of the public accommo- 
dations statute. 



10 



STATISTICAL REPORT 
November 10, 1946 to November 30, 1955 



Complaints : 

Initiated and received 1182 

Closed after formal hearing 2 

Closed after investigation and conference 644 

Closed for lack of probable cause 399 

Closed for lack of jurisdiction 38 

Withdrawn 56 

Pending investigation and conference 43 

Investigations Without Formal Complaint: 

Initiated by the Commission 589 

Closed after investigation and conference 475 

Closed for lack of probable cause 105 

Transferred to complaint 3 

Pending investigation and conference 6 

TOTAL 1771 

Nature of Complaints and Investigations: 

Based upon alleged color discrimination 867 

Based upon alleged religious discrimination 246 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of race 39 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of national 

origin 152 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of ancestry 21 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of age 446 

Type of Complaints and Investigations: 

Against employers 1297 

Against employment agencies 104 

Against labor unions 29 

Against employees 6 

Others 335 

Regulating and Supervising Age Amendment: 

Pending investigation and conference 24 

Closed for lack of probable cause 3 

Closed after investigation and conference 26 

TOTAL 53 

Inquiries 



The Visitors Record Book maintained by the Commission showed 737 signa- 
tures of individuals who made inquiries pertaining to the Civil Rights Statutes 
and their interpretation. 

Conferences 

The Commission feels that one of its most important educational activities 
may well come under the heading of conferences. There is, in its opinion, no 



11 



substitute for a direct exchange of opinion which is possible when people 
meet face to face and are able to discuss fully a problem which concerns them. 

During the past year the Commission has met with the following repre- 
sentatives of organizations: 

Name and Organization 

Br. Gordon W. Allport, Professor of Psychology, Department of Social 

Relations, Harvard University 
Dr. Kenneth D. Benne, Director, Boston University Human Relations Center 
Gerald A. Berlin, N. E. Regional Counsel, American Jewish Congress 
Julius Bernstein, Executive Director, Boston Labor Committee to Combat 

Intolerance 

J. P. Clifford, Director, Industrial Relations, Trans World Airlines 
Hubert L. Connor, Director, Division of Apprentice Training, Massachusetts 

Department of Labor and Industries 
Charles A. Coyle, Executive Secretary, Massachusetts Hotel Association 
Thomas J. Curtin, Director of American Citizenship, State Department of 

Education 

Marion English, Director, Urban League of Greater Boston 
Otis E. Finley, Industrial Relations Secretary, Urban League of Greater 
Boston 

James Fitzgerald, Supervisor of Testing, Massachusetts Division of Employ- 
ment Security 
Bernard Garber, Garbers Travel Service 

Louis R. Govoni, Business Agent, Local ^277, Hotel and Club Service 
Joseph B. Greenfield, Jewish Labor Committee, Secretary, Jewish Community 

Council of Metropolitan Boston 
Dennis C. Haley, Superintendent, Boston Public Schools 

Colonel Larkland F. Hewitt, President, Boston Branch, National Association 

for the Advancement of Colored People 
John E. Hurley, Business Agent, Local -34, Hotel and Restaurant Employees 
M. Jacob Joslow, Executive Director, American Jewish Congress, New 

England Region 

Sol Kolack, New England Regional Director, Anti-Defamation League of 
B'nai B'rith 

Joel Leighton, Executive Secretary, Associated General Contractors of 
Massachusetts 

Captain Tudor Leland, Superintendent of Flying, Trans World Airlines, 

Atlantic Region 
Paul A. Liston, General Counsel, Boston Housing Authority 
Joseph Lovegren, Executive Director, Forty Plus Club of New England 
Robert S. Lufkin, President, Massachusetts Retail Liquor Dealers 
W. Duncan Russell, Division Director, Recreation, Informal Education and 
Group Work Division, United Community Services of Greater Boston 
Mrs. Nancy St. John, American Friends Service Committee 
Robert E. Segal, Executive Director, Jewish Community Council of Metro- 
politan Boston 

Jacob Seidenberg, Executive Director, President's Committee on Government 
Contracts 

Mrs. Hattie H. Smith, Assistant Commissioner, Department of Labor and 
Industries 

Joseph Stefani, Business Agent, Local ^186, Cooks and Pastry Cooks 
Saul Swartzman, Business Agent, Local -277, Cafeteria and Lunchrooms 



12 



Robert Thomas, Legislative Agent, American Air Lines, New England Region 
Oscar J. Toye, Civil Rights Chairman, De<partment of Massachusetts, Jewish 
War Veterans 

Herbert E. Tucker, Esq., 1st Vice President, Boston Branch, National Associ- 
ation for the Advancement of Colored People 

John Walsh, Executive Secretary, Building Trades Employers Association 
of Massachusetts 

Educational Activities 

State Advisory Council 

The State Advisory Council met with the Commission as is customary in 
the spring to discuss policies and to review the activities of the Commission. 

The membership of this Council, which has until this year been made up 
of the former members of the Governor's Committee for Racial and Religious 
Understanding, has been increased to the number of ten. During the winter 
and early spring, the following new members were added: Dr. Gordon W. 
Allport, Professor of Psychology, Department of Social Relations, Harvard 
University; Dean Clarence Q. Berger, Brandeis University; Rabbi Roland B. 
Gittlesohn, Temple Israel; The Rev. Mr. Robert G. Metters, Emmanuel Church 
and Dr. Howard Thurman, Dean, Marsh Chapel, Boston University. 

Regional Councils 

The story of one Council activity of each of the five Councils is summarized 
below. Some background material has been included to give continuity. 

Boston Council 

The Boston Council has continued its studies of apprentice training oppor- 
tunities. Last year a survey covered 157 companies in the metal trades and a 
beginning was made in a study of opportunities in the building trades. 35 
Boston building trade unions were contacted by field representatives from the 
Commission. This year field representatives have called to date upon 105 
employers. This study has not ibeen completed. Its major results revealed 
that thirty companies were not aware of the law. The number of minority 
group employees as illustrated by Jewish or Negro membership has doubled 
in nine years. Fifty-five companies have a formal training program and four 
companies an informal one. At the time of the survey there was one Negro 
apprentice and no Jewish apprentices. 

In the spring, April 26, 1955, the Council sponsored a meeting of minority 
group representatives. It was attended by representatives of the following 
thirteen agencies: 

American Friends Service Committee, Mrs. Nancy St. John 

American Jewish Committee, Michael J. Sage 

American Jewish Congress, Gerald A. Berlin 

Anti-Defamation League, Isadore Zack 

Cooper Community Center, Mrs. Ethel R. Clark 

Freedom House, Mrs. Muriel Snowden 

Jewish Community Council, Robert E. Segal 

N.A.A.C.P., Mrs. Winifred I. Clapp 

St. Cyprian's Church, Sister Daisy Kitchens 

St. Mark's Church, Rev. S. L. Laviscount 

Harriet Tubman House, Mrs. Dorothy S. Scott 

United Community Services, W. Duncan Russell 

Urban League, Otis E. Finley 



13 



The meeting was held in the office of the M.C.A.D. The Commission members 
had invited the group leaders in order to discuss with them the accomplish- 
ments up to date and future possibilities in the field of apprentice training. 
A report was made by the Commission Chairman covering (1.) the visits of 
field representatives to Vocational Guidance teachers in the Boston high 
schools; (2.) a study of the practices of union groups (35) in the building 
trades; (3.) a study of practices of employers (157) in the metal trades; 
(4.) a study which is now being conducted of the practices of employers in 
the building trades; (5.) the cooperative arrangements arrived at with the 
Division of Apprentice Training and (6.) an outline of the services which the 
Massachusetts State Employment Service will afford interested young people. 

The purpose of these studies has been to determine whether or not young 
people in minority groups have been receiving an equal break not only in 
securing jobs but in getting training after they have been employed. A number 
of valuable suggestions were made by group leaders attending the conference. 

It was felt that parents and young people should realize more fully that all 
jobs are open to qualified persons. It is hoped all young people will not hesitate 
to apply for positions for which they are fitted. Jobs do not ordinarily seek 
the individual. It is up to the prospective employee to take the initiative. 

New Bedford Council 

The members of this Council were interested in resurveying firms originally 
surveyed in 1949. Forty-three companies were included in this study which 
revealed employment figures strikingly similar to those given in 1949. Ques- 
tions were asked about what groups were employed and at what levels. 
Answers also revealed whether or not the industry visited was familiar with 
the law, had the official poster on display and used an application form in 
accordance with the law. Since questions regarding race, religion and national 
origin have not been asked (before employment) since the passage of the Fair 
Employment Practice Act in 1946, approximate figures were entirely ac- 
ceptaible. In addition to this survey special information was given concerning 
the age amendment which is not as well understood as the regulations applying 
to race, color, religious creed, national origin and ancestry. 

NOTE : In November the Commission announced the appointment of Judge 
August C. Taveira as Chairman of the New Bedford Council. Judge Taveira 
replaces Mr. Alvah G. Patterson, who resigned in the spring. 

North Shore Council 

The members of the North Shore Council were impressed by the effectiveness 
of an employment survey of ninety-seven companies ranging from fifty to 1,500 
employees which took place last fall and decided to continue the survey 
technique this year but in a different area. The Health and Welfare Agencies 
of Greater Lynn were visited by one of the field representatives of the M.C.A.D. 
As a result the agencies visited have agreed to cooperate with the Commission. 
Through the suggestion of the Chamber of Commerce, Commission material 
has been sent to the membership of the Chamber of Commerce and the Junior 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Springfield Council 

The Springfield Council sponsored a resurvey of a number of concerns 
originally visited in 1948. Employee figures were very like those obtained in 
1948. All persons interviewed stated that there was no difference in produc- 
tion or cooperation received from workers because they happened to be of any 
particular race, color, religious creed or national origin. 

During Octoiber, twenty-five Social Service Agencies were called upon. 
A summary of the laws against discrimination, Commission Policies and a 
question and answer pamphlet on Civil Rights Statutes in Massachusetts were 



14 



left with the person interviewed. On the whole, the majority of the agencies 
knew of the Commission and the statutes administered by it. In addition to 
the Social Agencies, field representatives contacted three newspapers and ten 
employment agencies. Representatives of both the newspapers and employ- 
ment agencies said the age amendment was at least understood and caused 
them more concern than any other phase of the Fair Employment Practice 
Law. 

Worcester Council 

As an outgrowth of the studies made by three sub-committees of the Worces- 
ter Council in 1. Industry, labor and Massachusetts Employment Service; 
2. Social Agencies; and 3. Schools, it was felt that leaders in the Negro Com- 
munity should be approached in order to assist Council members in acquainting 
Negro youth in Worcester with the opportunities that are open to them. At a 
meeting of the Worcester Council, the following volunteered to arrange for a 
workshop on employment opportunities: Mr. George A. Strait, Chairman; 
Mr. Daniel J. Casale; Mrs. Daniel Farber; Miss Anna Mays; Dr. Thomas E. 
Christensen; Mr. Roy H. Stevens and Mr. Erill Hawley. 

On April 21, 1955, a workshop meeting was held at the office of the Division 
of Employment Security. Forty-eight young people attended. Brief talks 
were given on how best to apply for a job and on job opportunities in Worces- 
ter. Each talk was followed by a general discussion. Industries were also 
visited. After the Workshop was over, a questionnaire was sent out to the 
forty-eight representatives of Negro youth in order to get from them an 
evaluation of the effectiveness of the day. Twenty-five replied. Only six out 
of the twenty-five failed to recommend another workshop for other students. 

At the meeting of the Council on October 21, 1955, the final report of the 
Workshop Committee was discussed. It was decided to establish a committee 
to continue the work of the original three committees which were mentioned 
at the ibeginning of this summary. Its members are: Mrs. Daniel Farber, 
Mr. Frederick H. Case, Jr. and Mr. Hollister Gutridge. This committee will 
be known as the Committee on Public Relations. 

In the spring a survey will be made by the Council to determine what 
success the young people who attended the April workshop have had in secur- 
ing employment commensurate with their abilities. 

Meetings with Officers of the Division of Employment Security 

Mrs. Mildred H. Mahoney, Chairman, and Mr. Walter H. Nolan, Executive 
Secretary, have met with the District Superintendents and Branch Office 
Managers throughout the State to discuss the Fair Employment Practice Law- 
with special emphasis upon the age amendment which does not seem to be as 
thoroughly understood by employers as the sections of the law dealing with 
race, religion and national origin. The officers of the Division of Employment 
Security have been very cooperative and the opportunity to speak at their 
regional meetings is much appreciated by the Commission. 

Cooperation with State Department of Education 

Unit of Study 

This year the unit of study, Discrimination — Danger to Democracy, pub- 
lished by the Commission and written with the assistance of Mr. Thomas J. 
Curtin, Director of American Citizenship, State Department of Education, 
has been revised. So far 5,000 copies have been distributed to the high schools 
in Massachusetts. Units have been requested from other states as well. In 
such instances, sample copies have been sent with the suggestion that they be 
reproduced. 



15 



Course in American Citizenship 

Teacher training courses have been held throughout the state by the Director 
of American Citizenship to acquaint teachers with problems of juvenile 
delinquency, civil rights and other matters of primary concern. A Commission 
representative has been included in these courses which enable the Commission 
to reach directly a larger segment of influential teachers. 

State Advisory Council Membership 

John J. Desmond, Jr., Chairman, Commissioner of Education 

Dr. Gordon W. Allport, Professor of Psychology, Department of Social 
Relations, Harvard University 

Rt. Rev. Robert P. Barry, LL.D., St. Clement's Church, Trustee of Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital 

Dean Clarence Q. Berger, Brandeis University 

Thomas H. Carens, Vice-President in charge of Public Relations, Boston 
Edison Company 

Charles C. Dasey, Retired, Manager, Cunard White Star, Ltd. 

Rabbi Roland B. Gittlesohn, Temple Israel 

Judge Jacob J. Kaplan, former president, Boston Bar Association 

Rev. Robert G. Metters, Emmanuel Church 

Dr. Howard Thurman, Dean, Marsh Chapel, Boston University 

Regional Council Membership 

Boston 

Paul T. Rothwell, Chairman, President, Bay State Milling Company 
Norman H. Abbott, Director, Boston University Placement Service 
J. William Belanger, President, Mass. State CIO 

Julius Bernstein, Executive Secretary, Boston Labor Committee to Combat 
Intolerance 

Salvatore Camelio, Secretary-Treasurer, Mass. State CIO, District Direc- 
tor, United Rubber Workers, CIO 

Frederic C. Church, Senior Partner, Boit, Dalton & Church 

Abram T. Collier, Vice-President and General Solicitor, John Hancock 
Mutual Life Insurance Company 

John V. Connolly, Executive Secretary, Allied Printing Trades Council 

Hubert L. Connor, Director, Massachusetts Division of Apprentice 
Training 

Frederick A. Cosgrove, Vice-President, Personnel, New England Telephone 
& Telegraph Company 

Norris G. Davis, Member, Business & Professional Men's Club 

John E. Deady, Secretary-Treasurer, Building and Construction Trades 
Council, Metropolitan District 

Harry P. Grages, Chairman, State Labor Relations Board 

Harold D. Hodgkinson, Vice-President & General Manager, William 
Filene's Sons Company, Chairman of the Board, The Federal Reserve 
Bank of Boston 



16 



Ernest A. Johnson, Commissioner, Massachusetts Department of Labor 
and Industries 

Michael T. Kelleher, Vice-President, Marsh & McLennan, Inc. 

Kenneth J. Kelley, Secretary-Treasurer & Legislative Agent, Mass. 

State Federation of Labor 
Stephen E. McCloskey, Secretary-Treasurer & Business Agent, Central 

Labor Union 

Thomas A. Pappas, President, C. Pappas Company, Inc. 
Colonel Leonard T. Peters, Peters Employment Service 
Sidney R. Rabb, Chairman of the Board, Stop & Shop, Inc. 
Arthur Seserman, Executive Secretary, National Metal Trades Associ- 
ation, Boston Branch 
F. Frank Vorenberg, President, Gilchrist Company 

Leslie E. Woods, Director of Industrial Relations, Raytheon Manufactur- 
ing Company 

New Bedford 
Judge August C. Taveira, Chaimnan 
Miss Laurinda Andrade, New Bedford High School 

Judge Samuel Barnet, Special Justice, Third District Court, Bristol 
County 

Henry A. Bartkiewicz, Esquire 

Walter Bonner, New Bedford High School 

George E. Carigan, Director, New Bedford Joint Board, Textile Workers 
Union of America, CIO 

Miss Joy E. Colvin, Executive Director, Young Women's Christian Associ- 
ation 

Joseph Dawson, President, Knowles Loom Reed Works 
Mrs. Annette DeMello, New Bedford High School 

Joseph A. DeSousa, Director, Adult Civic Education Department, New 
Bedford School Department 

Joseph Duchaine, President, My Bread Baking Company 

Alfred J. Gomes, Esquire 

Rev. Edward A. Hailes, Union Baptist Church 
Harold Hurwitz, Esquire 

George F. McGovern, Works Manager, Revere Copper & Brass Company 

C. Dudley Onley, Secretary, New Bedford Branch, National Association 
for the Advancement of Colored People 

Fermino Spencer, Allen F. Wood School 

Mrs. Dorothy D. Stahre, Principal, Cedar Grove Street School 
Fred W. Steele, Executive Secretary, New Bedford Cotton Manufacturers 
Association 

Representative Joseph A. Sylvia, Jr. 

Dr. Xenophon Thomas, National Association for the Advancement of 
Colored People 

Philip F. Tripp, Executive Director, New Bedford Housing Authority 

Mrs. Francis S. Winsper, Vice-Chairman, New Bedford Council of Social 
Agencies, League of Women Voters 

Donald Zeman, Esquire 

Mrs. Anthony Zielinski, Vice-President, Polish National Alliance; Trustee, 
Polish-American Veterans Auxiliary 



17 



North Shore 

Henry Kozlowski, Chairman, Treasurer, Jackson & Phillips, Inc. 
Anthony Athanas, President, Hawthorne Restaurants, Inc. 
Mrs. Mary F. Berlyn, Adult Civic Education, Lynn Public Schools 
Abraham Caswell, Treasurer, Caswell-Doucette Shoe Company 
Thomas D. Chatfield, President, Essex Trust Company 
Thomas J. Curtin, Director of American Citizenship, State Department 
of Education 

Miss Louise B. Day, Chief Librarian, Lynn Public Library 
Mrs. Solomon Feldman, Member, Jewish Community Center of Greater 
Lynn 

Abraham Glovsky, Esquire, Glovsky & Glovsky 

Francis L. Keane, Director, Pupil Adjustment & Occupational Placement, 

Lynn Public Schools 
Mrs. Doris Latimer, Librarian, Lynn ITEM 

Mrs. Jack Lerner, Vice-President, Swampscott-Marblehead Chapter, Anti- 
Defamation League of B'nai B'rith 

John M. Lilly, General Secretary, Young Men's Christian Association 

Chester C. Nemphos, Legislative Agent and Member, Civil Rights Com- 
mittee, Local 201, lUE-CIO 

Norman J. Randell, Manager, Plant Community Relations, General 
Electric Company 

Theodore Regnante, Esquire, President, Lynn Bar Association; Mem'ber, 

Board of Directors, BEES Club 
Armand J. St. Laurent 

Dr. William D. Washington, Commissioner, Massachusetts Commission 
Against Discrimination 

Springfield 
Charles V. Ryan, Esquire, Chairman 
Mrs. Richard B. Anderson, League of Women Voters 

Robert G. Bleakney, General Superintendent, New England Telephone 

& Telegraph Company 
John H. Breck, Jr., John H. Breck, Inc. 

Archie Burack, Treasurer and General Manager, Industrial Buildings 
Corporation 

George C. Gordon, National Association for the Advancement of Colored 
People 

Miss Alice L. Halligan, Director, Bureau of Guidance, Placement and 
Adult Education, Springfield School Department 

Robert W. Hutton, Secretary, Employers' Association of Western Massa- 
chusetts 

Mrs. Thelma Keitlen, Community Consultant, Western Massachusetts 

Area, Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith 
Dr. Howard P. Kennedy 
Raymond T. King, Esquire 

Alexander B. Mapp, Executive Secretary, Urban League of Springfield 

Roger L. Putnam, President, Package Machinery Company 

Mrs. Roger L. Putnam, Springfield Housing Authority 

Frederick B. Robinson, Director, Springfield Museum of Fine Arts 

Mrs. Charles V. Ryan 

James J. Shea, President, Milton-Bradley Company 
Charles ViVenzio, Local 202, lUE-CIO 



18 



W orcester 

Andrew B. Holmstrom, Chairman, Vice-President, Norton Company 
Mrs. Laurence J. Bouchard, Massachusetts Parent Teachers Association 
Lyscom A. Bruce, Secretary, Community Chest of Worcester 
Rev. Hubert C. Callaghan, S.J., Holy Cross College 
Daniel J. Casale, Manager, Division of Employment Security 
Frederick H. Case, Jr., Field Representative, Public Relations, U. S. Steel 
Company 

Gardener C. DeMallie, President, Family Service Organization 

Donald S. Donnelly, Employment Service Supervisor, Massachusetts 

Division of Employment Security 
Samuel J. Donnelly, A. F. of L. 

Mrs. Katherine F. Erskine, Member, School Committee of Worcester 
Mrs. Daniel Farber, President, Interracial Council of Worcester 
Judge Joseph Goldberg, Chairman, Worcester Area Committee, Anti- 
Defamation League of B'nai B'rith 
Mrs. Marian Hallock, League of Women Voters 
Milton P. Higgins, President, Norton Company 

Dr. Ralph L. Holland, Executive Secretary, Greater Worcester Area 

Council of Churches 
Loren K. Hutchinson, Manager, Industrial Relations, Wyman-Gordon 

Company 

Dr. Howard B. Jefferson, President, Clark University 
Rabbi Joseph Klein, Temple Emmanuel 

Miss Anna Mays, National Association for the Advancement of Colored 
People 

John F. Mitchell, Treasurer, Reed Rolled Thread Die Company 
Philip M. Morgan, President, Morgan Construction Company 
Mrs. Arthur G. Perry, Worcester Council of Mothers' Clubs 
Mrs. Thomas L. Porter 

Thomas F. Power, Superintendent, School Department 

George A. Roberts, National Association for the Advancement of Colored 

People 
Miss Julia E. Robinson 

Mrs, Dorothy L. Salter, Salter Secretarial School 

Miss Mildred L. Savacool, Young Women's Christian Association 

Paul W. Spaulding, President, John C. Maclnnes Company 

Roy H. Stevens, Jr., United Steel Workers of America, CIO 

George A. Strait, Worcester County Law Library Association 

Judge Carl E. Wahlstrom 

Dr. Joseph Weinreb, Worcester Youth Center 



Public Document No. '16S^ 

"3 

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT 

ANNUAL REPORT 
of the 

Massachusetts Commission 
Against Di scrimination 

Mildred H. Mahoney, Chairman 
George W. Cash man, Commissioner 
William D. Washington, Commissioner 




December 1, 1955 to November 30, 1956 

41 Tremonl Street 
Boston, Massachuselts 



i'CBLICATION OF THIS DOCUMENT APPROVED BY GeORGE J. CrOXIN, StaTE PURCHASING AgENT 



m mm bf hmssachto 

CONTENTS 

MAY 21 1957 

INTRODUCTION 3 

Interim Report on thA-rEair. Educational Practices Act ... 4 

^rATE HOUSE, BOSTON 

A List of Civil Rights Statutes Administered by the Commission . 5 

ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES 

Complaints and Investigations 5 

Investigations — Age Amendment ....... 6 

Investigations — Public Accommodations 6 

Investigations — Fair Education 6 

Investigations — Public Housing 6 

Selected Case Histories . 8 

Statistical Report 11 

EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES 

Conferences 12 

Council Activities 14 

State Advisory Council Membership 15 

Regional Council Membership 

Boston 15 

New Bedford 16 

North Shore 16 

Springfield 1'^ 

Worcester 1''^ 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
MASSACHUSETTS COMMISSION AGAINST DISCRIMINATION 

Introduction 

Probably the most important happening" this year for the Massachusetts 
Commission Against Discrimination is the acquisition of a new duty. On 
August 10, 1956, the Fair Educational Practices Act, formerly administered 
by the Department of Education under the directorship of Dr. Franklin P. 
Hawkes, was transferred to the MCAD. This now places all legislation dealing 
with discrimination if it applies to employment, education, places of public 
accommodation or public housing under the jurisdiction of this Commission. 
On September 1, 1956, Dr. Clarence P. Quimby, well known educator, was 
appointed as Field Representative in charge of Fair Educational Practices. 
He will carry on the duties previously the responsibility of Dr. Hawkes. 

The Fair Educational Practices Act covers all educational institutions with 
the stipulation noted below: 

"It is hereby declared to be the policy of the Commonwealth that the Ameri- 
can ideal of equality of opportunity requires that students, otherwise qualified, 
be admitted to educational institutions without regard to race, color, religion, 
creed or national origin, except that, with regard to religious or denomina- 
tional educational institutions, students, otherwise qualified, shall have the 
equal opportunity to attend therein without discrimination because of race, 
color or national origin. It is a fundamental American right for members of 
various religious faiths to establish and maintain educational institutions ex- 
clusively or primarily for students of their own religious faith or to effectuate 
the religious principles in furtherance of which they are maintained. Nothing 
contained in this act shall impair or abridge that right." 

This year, as in former years, more complaints have been made alleging 
discrimination in employment than in any other field. The law now covers in 
employment any discrimination based upon race, color, religious creed, na- 
tional origin, age or ancestry. There have not been as many cases based on 
alleged employment discrimination because of age as had been expected. The 
major help the Commission has afforded our senior citizens is in curbing "age 
advertising." The whole tone of advertising in the classified sections of Metro- 
politan newspapers has changed since the passage of the age amendment which 
provides that there must not be any specification of age either directly or 
indirectly before hiring. Ads still appear mentioning age directly or indirectly 
but they are relatively few. Before the age amendment was passed there was 
in employment advertising such an emphasis on youth that the conclusion 
might have been reached that anyone over forty was unemployable. Now the 
general public seems to be realizing more fully that age and energy do not 
always equate and that experience and general maturity are often highly 
desirable qualities in an employee. 

Cases based on alleged discrimination in places of public accommodation 
have increased slightly in the past year. Encouragingly surveys and checks 
on advertising materials reveal increasing awareness of the law which pro- 
vides that places of public accommodation must afford equal treatment. 

A real change is evident in new public housing developments and this im- 
provement has happened solely as the result of a cooperative effort of the 
Housing Authorities and the Commission. As yet, only one case has been 
brought charging discrimination in this area. 



4 



Many people fail to realize that the Commission operates at three levels : 

1. Enforcing the Law 

When a case is brought by an individual or his attorney, it is assigned to 
one of the Commissioners and a Field Representative. The Field Representa- 
tive interviews people, studies records and eventually reports the facts which 
he discovers to the Investigating Commissioner who calls the interested parties 
into conference and tries to settle the matter on an informal basis. If neces- 
sary, the Commission has the power to subpoena. If a matter cannot be settled 
in the conference period it is referred to the other two Commissioners for a 
hearing which may be public or private. 

2. Investigations 

An investigation deals with a situation which does not begin with a com- 
plaint from an individual, but it must relate to instances where trouble is 
manifest that can be traced to the factors of race, religious creed, national 
origin, age or ancestry and so is of concern to the Commission. In other words, 
the Commission recognizes what it considers to be a danger signal and tries 
to straighten out the matter in a cooperative manner. The information which 
triggers the investigation may come from a reputable source or agency or 
may be an incident involving an organization exempted from the provisions 
of the statutes. Under such circumstances the Commission invites people to 
a conference stating the reason for such an invitation. At no time has such 
an invitation been ignored. The majority of such conferences are successful 
but failures are not unknown. 

3. Education 

The educational program attempts to acquaint the general community with 
the work of the Commission to the end that public understanding, sympathy 
and support may be stimulated and the services given by the Commission may 
be made clear. 

The Commission has been fortunate and also challenged in dealing with the 
most interesting material in this world — human nature. How that challenge 
has been met appears on the next few pages. 

Interim Report on the 

Fair Educational Practices Act 

During the seven years in which the Department of Education has been 
responsible for the enforcement of the Fair Educational Practices Act, a total 
of approximately 1200 educational institutions has been contacted. It is sig- 
nificant that a response of complete cooperation in policy was obtained from 
over 91% of the schools, colleges, and other educational groups in the Com- 
monwealth. 

With the transfer of the jurisdiction of the Fair Educational Practices Act 
to the Commission, it was felt that the first assignment of the Field Repre- 
sentative charged with contacting educational institutions should be to in- 
vestigate the 9% of schools and colleges which had not fully accepted the 
policies of the Department of Education. These instances were generally 
found to be based on a difference in opinion regarding the interpretation of 
the request for a photograph from the admissions offices of certain schools 
and colleges. 

After having visited a considerable number of colleges and independent 
schools, the Field Representative gained the impression that complete coopera- 
tion with the provisions of the Act and universal acceptance of the Com- 
mission's interpretations can eventually be effected. There are, however, some 
institutions which feel that the use of photographs should not be denied to 
their admission committees. 



5 



In many colleg-es, the decisions on acceptance are made by committees con- 
sisting of from three to as many as nine members. Personal interviews are 
not possible in the case of the larger schools where applications are three to 
four times the number than can be accepted. Even where interviews are pos- 
sible, generally only one member of the committee has a chance to see the 
applicant. Such educational institutions are reluctant to give up the use of 
photographs when candidates are discussed before the whole committee. 

Data and new information are now being collected and studied. Regional 
meetings of an informal nature are also being organized in six different sec- 
tions of the Commonwealth where school representatives will have a chance 
to meet with a representative of the Commission. From these sources, experi- 
ences will be pooled and analyzed and a public hearing will be called as early 
as possible in the Spring of 1957. Meanw^hile the Commission proposes to use 
existing interpretations, as per the Annual Report on "Equality of Educational 
Opportunity," as prepared by the Department of Education as a basis for 
administering the Massachusetts Fair Educational Practices Act. 



A List of Civil Rights Statutes Administered by the Commission 

Chapter 368 of the Legislative Acts of 1946 brought into being the original 
Fair Employment Practice Commission as well as the Fair Employment Prac- 
tice Law, Chapter 151B of the General Laws. 

AMENDMENTS 

Chapter 479 of the Legislative Acts of 1950 changed the name of the Com- 
mission to its present one, Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination, 
and also increased the scope and jurisdiction of the Commission by placing 
within its province the administration of the Public Accommodations Statute 
and the Public Housing Statute. 

Chapter 697 of the Legislative Acts of 1950 increased the scope of the fair- 
employment practice statute to include age, defined as 45 to 65. 

Chapter 437 of the Legislative Acts of 1953 further defined a place of public 
accommodation, resort or place of amusement. 

Chapter 274 of the Legislative Acts of 1955 provided that any person seek- 
ing a bond or surety bond conditioned upon the faithful performance of his 
duties shall not be required to furnish information as to his race, color, re- 
ligious creed, national origin or ancestry in applying for such a bond. 

Chapter 334 of the Legislative Acts of 1956 provided for the transfer of 
the jurisdiction to enforce the Fair Educational Practices law from the Board 
of Education to the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination. 



Enforcement Activities 

Complaints and Investigations 

The eleventh annual report covers the period from December 1, 1955 to 
November 30, 1956. 

During this period the Commission received, initiated and processed 373 
matters involving unlawful discriminatory practices based on race, color, re- 
ligious creed, national origin, age or ancestry. 

Field Representatives made personal contact with 588 companies in various 
sections of the Commonwealth. The purpose of this field work is to determine 
compliance with the fair employment practice statute; to give interpretations 
and answer questions; to review employment application forms for inquiries 
in violation of the statute and to see that the summary of the law is posted 
in a conspicuous place on the premises, as provided by law. Of the 588 em- 



6 



ployers surveyed, it was necessary for 194 of them to revise their application 
forms by eliminating unlawful inquiries. 

An investigation is made each year in connection with the public housing 
statute. This year the operation of eight Housing Authorities in the Com- 
monwealth were studied. The results of the investigation and the degree of 
integration are noted in another section of this report. 

One case of alleged discrimination because of color, the first case in 5 years, 
was filed under the public housing statute. 

Investigations — Age Amendment 

Periodic reviews were made of the "help wanted" advertisements of all the 
daily and weekly newspapers published in the Commonwealth. 

Notices were sent to 1046 employers and employment agencies bringing 
specific violations to their attention. The notices required a written answer 
as to the reasons for specifying age directly or indirectly. 

994 of those receiving notices, to date, claimed the law violation was in- 
advertent and pledged that in the future their advertising would conform to 
the statute as it relates to advertising and hiring. 

55 employers requested exemptions under this age amendment, claiming 
that age was a bona fide job qualification. The Commission approved four 
such requests for exemption. 

Investigations — Public Accommodations 

In accordance with Commission policy, resort hotels, motels and guest houses 
are contacted each year and requested to submit, for purposes of review, all 
printed material used in advertising and in answering reservation requests. 

This year, the Commission reviewed the material sent by 709 of these places 
of public accommodations. In not one instance were there unlawful inquiries 
nor discriminatory advertising in the material reviewed. 

Investigations — Fair Education 

In September of this report period, a request for copies of admission forms, 
catalogues, brochures and all printed material sent to students applying for 
admission to educational institutions was made to 850 colleges, universities 
and secondary schools in the Commonwealth. The material is presently being 
examined for possible violations of the Fair Educational Practices statute. 

To date conferences have been held with officials of eight universities for 
the purpose of eliminating inquiries deemed in violation of the provisions of 
the statute. 

Investigations — Public Housing 

To determine compliance with the public housing statute administered by 
the Commission surveys of occupancy and tenant selection methods of various 
Housing Authorities are made each year. 

This year the following Housing Authorities were surveyed: 



1. Barnstable 

2. Boston 

3. Cambridge 

4. Holyoke 



5. Lynn 

6. New Bedford 

7. Springfield 

8. Worcester 



BARNSTABLE HOUSING AUTHORITY SURVEY 
State No. of Units No. of Non-White Families 

General Fatten Road 40 6 



Federal 
None 



7 

BOSTON HOUSING AUTHORITY SURVEY 

State No. of Units No. of Non-White Families 

Broadway, South Boston 972 11 

Camden Street, Roxbury 72 71 

Commonwealth Ave., Brighton 648 14 

Fanueil Street, Brighton 258 2 

Archdale Road, Brighton 288 8 

Orient Heights, E. Boston 354 3 

Gallivan Boulevard 251 1 

Franklin Field, Dorchester 504 20 

Federal 

Lenox Street, Roxbury 306 297 

Orchard Park, Roxbury 774 90 

South End 508 227 

Heath Street, Roxbury 420 6 

East Boston 414 1 

Franklin Hill Avenue 375 16 

Whittier St., Roxbury 200 170 

Mission Hill Ext., Roxbury 588 222 

Bromley Park, Roxbury 734 115 

Columbia Point, Dorchester 1504 81 

Old Colony, South Boston 873 1 

Washington-Beach Streets 274 5 

CAMBRIDGE HOUSING AUTHORITY SURVEY 

State No. of Units No. of Non-White Families 

Woodrow Wilson Court 69 7 

Jefferson Park 109 9 

Lincoln Way 60 3 

Roosevelt Towers 228 13 

Jackson Gardens 46 2 

Jefferson Park Extension 200 10 

Federal 

Washington Elms 324 31 

Putnam Gardens 123 47 

Newtowne Court 294 14 

Corcoran Park 152 5 

HOLYOKE HOUSING AUTHORITY SURVEY 

State No. of Units No. of Non-White Families 

Beaudoin Village 219 

Federal 

Jackson Parkway 219 

Lyman Terrace 167 

LYNN HOUSING AUTHORITY SURVEY 

State No. of Units No. of Non-White Families 

Chestnut Street 78 1 

Green Street 48 

America Park 408 22 



Federal 

Holyoke Street 



300 



24 



8 



NEW BEDFORD HOUSING AUTHORITY SURVEY 
State No. of Units No. of Non-White Families 



Parkdale 100 3 

Blue Meadows 150 14 

Nashmont 80 

Housing for the elderly 75 2 

Federal 

Bay Village 200 116 

President Heights 200 1 

Brickwood 300 25 

Westlawn 200 35 



SPRINGFIELD HOUSING AUTHORITY SURVEY 
State No. of Units No. of Non-White Families 

Reed Village 200 13 

Robinson Gardens 136 4 

Duggan Park 196 5 

Federal 

Lucy Mallary Village 300 9 

WORCESTER HOUSING AUTHORITY SURVEY 
State No. of Units No. of Non-White Families 

Lakeside 204 3 

Curtis Apartments 390 3 

Federal 

Great Brook Valley Gardens 600 16 

The examination of the tenant selection forms revealed no inquiry into the 
race, color, creed or religion of the applicants. 

With the exception of the Holyoke Housing Authority there appears to be 
continuous progress in integration in conformity to the public housing statute 
administered by the Commission. 

The Holyoke Housing Authority is on record as declaring that the non- 
white families who have applied have annual incomes in excess of the maxi- 
mum allowed by law. 



Selected Case Histories 

1. Color Discrimination in Employment. Case No. XI-25-C 

The complainant applied for employment to the respondent. She was asked 
her qualifications and then given an employment application form to complete. 
On completion of the application form she was informed that no openings 
were available and that she would be notified regarding work in about two 
or three weeks. During the course of the interview, the interviewer suggested 
several times that the complainant seek employment elsewhere. The interview 
was terminated with the same suggestion. 

After having applied to the company three times without success, the com- 
plainant charged the respondent with unlawful discrimination against her 
because of her color. 

Investigation of the complaint revealed that the respondent's employees 
were numbered in the hundreds. Although there were colored persons living 
in the same community and surrounding area, none were employed. The com- 
plainant had applied for a production job. The rate of turnover in production 
averaged approximately 5 to 6% per year, according to respondent's records. 



9 



A review of company records revealed that there were more than 200 ap- 
plications on file. The person in charge of the application forms stated that 
very few colored persons applied for employment and the complainant was 
the only colored applicant she could recall. 

A review of the application forms revealed that the complainant's card 
was so marked that it was distinct from others in the file. It was also dated 
three months after the complainant stated she applied. 

In a ten month period, following- the date of the complainant's initial ap- 
plication and during which period she re-applied three times, more than 130 
persons were hired. 92 of the persons hired were new. A sampling of these 
indicated that two thirds of them did not have previous experience. The 
figures appeared to indicate that respondent had an employee turnover some- 
what higher than that stated. 

Respondent's representatives steadfastly denied that the complainant was 
discriminated against because of color. It was pointed out that the com- 
plainant had not been given an opportunity to take the required examination 
which was a prerequisite to employment. 

At an informal conference held at the offices of the Commission, the per- 
sonnel director for the respondent stated that application forms are held in 
the file for about one year. All hiring is done from the application file. 

It was further pointed out to the personnel director that the complainant 
was the only known colored applicant to have an application on file and that 
her application was the only one marked differently. The personnel director 
stated that the mark had no significance. However, the personnel director 
was informed that the employment pattern of the respondent did indicate 
that no Negroes were employed despite information from respondent's repre- 
sentatives that a few had applied. 

At the request of the investigating commissioner, the complainant was re- 
interviewed and given the test. The Commission was informed that she had 
passed the required test and her application was placed in the active file. 

During final negotiations, the complainant notified the Commission that she 
had found suitable employment elsewhere and was no longer interested in 
working for respondent. 

2. Age Discrimination in Employment. Case No. AVI-l-A 

The complainant, a woman aged 56, applied for light assembly work at the 
respondent company, in answer to a newspaper advertisement. She was in- 
formed by the personnel manager that the company did not have a job which 
she could do. She asked for an opportunity to prove her ability and was told 
that her employment application form had supplied sufficient information. 

In a prior interview, the personnel manager stated she would be hired if 
she passed a manual dexterity test. She completed the test and was informed 
by the person administering it that she had passed with the "highest possible 
mark." She contacted the company a number of times in person and by tele- 
phone. Each time she was informed there was no employment for her. 

The complainant charged the respondent company with discriminating 
against her in denying her employment because of her age. 

Investigation revealed that the respondent company employed several hun- 
dred persons. The rate of turnover of employees was approximatly ten per 
week. Members of minority groups were employed in various capacities. Rec- 
ords used prior to employment conformed to the law. 

According to the personnel director, a number of jobs had been vacant since 
the complainant's original application. However, these jobs were in produc- 
tion and the complainant, he indicated, was not qualified for such work. 

Investigation of company records revealed that in the period since the com- 
plainant's application to the date of her complaint to the Commission, a period 
of five months, 100 female employees had been hired in production. The 



10 



majority of the new production employees were recent high school graduates 
without previous experience. 

A review of the complainant's employment application form and record re- 
vealed that she had six years' experience in production work including one 
year in a similar industry. 

The personnel director denied that he had told the complainant that if she 
passed the manual dexterity test she would be hired. He added that all ap- 
plicants, except former employees, must take the test before being considered 
for employment. 

He denied that the respondent discriminated against the complainant be- 
cause of her age, pointing out two present employees, one 41 and another 45. 
He insisted that the work at his plant required good eyesight, dexterity, and 
in some instances was tedious and dangerous. Therefore, due to the nature 
of the business, the majority of the employees were young girls. 

The respondent's representative stated that the complainant's age was not 
the reason for denying her employment. He added that he would-re-interview 
the complainant and attempt to place her with the company. 

The following day, he contacted the Commission stating that he had inter- 
viewed the complainant and found her to be a very satisfactory prospect and 
that he would attempt to employ her. 

A short time later the complainant wrote the Commission stating that she 
had been employed by the respondent. She added that she was very pleased 
with the position she held. 

3. Color Discrimination in a Place of Public Accommodation. 
Case No. PVI-8-C 

The complainant entered the respondent barber shop for the purpose of 
having his hair cut. The barber on duty informed the complainant that he 
did not know how to cut his type of hair. The complainant then left the 
premises. He filed a complaint with the Commission charging the respondent 
with discriminating against him because of his color. 

During the investigation the owner of the respondent shop said that he was 
the person who talked with the complainant. He added that he had not re- 
fused to cut the complainant's hair, but had told the complainant that he did 
not know how to cut it. He added further that after having been so informed, 
the complainant said, "all right" and left the premises. He did not create any 
trouble. 

The respondent explained that he had never cut the hair of a colored per- 
son, but if the complainant had insisted he would have received a hair cut. 
When asked if it was customary for any customer to insist on having his hair 
cut, the respondent replied that such a problem had never arisen. 

When asked if the complainant or any other colored person would receive 
service if they entered the shop, the respondent replied that he would inform 
him that he had never cut the hair of a colored person, but he would cut his 
hair to the best of his ability, if it was desired. 

He then pointed out that the complainant reported the matter to the local 
police and admitted to the police that he had not been denied service. 

A visit to police headquarters revealed that there was no record of such 
a report. 

On the same day, shortly after the completion of the investigation, the 
Commission Field Representative conferred with the complainant. 

After a review of the investigation the complainant stated that the barber 
did not say he would not cut his hair, but twice he said, "I do not know how 
to cut your hair." The second time he said it, there appeared to be a tone 
of finality indicating to the complainant that his hair would not be cut. 

The complainant, being advised by the Commission's Field Representative 



11 



that the barber had said that he would cut his hair, stated that he would re- 
turn to the respondent shop for a haircut. 

The following day the complainant telephoned the Commission and said 
that he had returned to the barber shop, shortly after he had conferred with 
the Field Representative. 

The barber was now very cordial to him, apologized for the incident which 
prompted the complaint, and cut his hair satisfactorily. 

The entire matter, which included the investigation, review of police rec- 
ords, conference with the complainant and the complainant's return and re- 
ceipt of satisfactory treatment, was accomplished within a five-hour period. 

U. Religious Discrimination Fair Educational Practices Act. 
Case No. EDI-l-RC 

The first complaint brought to the Massachusetts Commission Against Dis- 
crimination after the transfer of the Fair Educational Practices Act from 
the Department of Education was filed on August 14, 1956. The complaint 
came from New Jersey. 

Immediate contact with the complainant revealed that she had made ap- 
plication to a Junior College in Massachusetts using her own name, "a com- 
monly accepted Jewish name." The college advised her that its "quota from 
New York and New Jersey" had been filled. However, three weeks later when 
the girl's mother applied to the same college, using her maiden name, which 
was obviously of a different background, the college sent an application blank 
in reply — none had been sent in the first reply to the girl and made no refer- 
ence to the geographical quota. It was contended by the father that dis- 
crimination had been directed against his daughter and that applications were 
not being considered upon a geographical basis but upon the recognition of 
family names. 

A week later the Registrar of the college was visited. Explanation was 
made by the Registrar that vacancies did appear after June 1st and lists were 
presented to show that Jewish students were admitted in large numbers (20- 
25 A promise was made to write the father full details and send an 
application blank. 

The father accepted the college's explanation but the girl was no longer 
interested in a Massachusetts college because she had enrolled elsewhere. 

During the investigation the college produced complete enrollment data. A 
study of this data verified the Registrar's statements. It was recommended 
by the Commission that: 

(1) the college avoid the use of the word ''quota" in correspondence relating 
to admission. When "geographical quota" is meant, it was suggested 
that "geographical distribution" might be substituted since the word 
"quota" had acquired an unpleasant connotation and, 

(2) application blanks be sent in reply to any inquiry even if an accom- 
panying letter explains that enrollment has been completed as of that 
date. 



STATISTICAL REPORT 
November 10, 1946 to November 30, 1956 



Complaints : 

Initiated and received 

Closed after formal hearing 

Closed after investigation and conference 

Closed for lack of probable cause 

Closed for lack of jurisdiction 

Withdrawn 

Pending investigation and conference 



2 

738 
429 
40 
69 
25 



1303 



12 



Investigations Without Formal Complaint: 

Initiated by the Commission 648 

Closed after investigation and conference 528 

Closed for lack of probable cause 107 

Transferred to complaint 3 

Pending investigation and conference 10 

Regulating and Supervising Age Amendment: 

Pending investigation and conference 19 247 

Closed for lack of probable cause 10 

Closed after investigation and conference 218 

TOTAL 2198 

Nature of Complaints and Investigations: 

Based upon alleged color discrimination 924 

Based upon alleged religious discrimination 257 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of race 42 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of national 

origin 199 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of ancestry 23 

Based upon alleged discrimination because of age 753 

Type of Complaints and Investigations: 

Against employers 1707 

Against employment agencies 105 

Against labor unions 29 

Against employees 6 

Others 351 



Educational Activities 

Inquiries 

The Commission records reveal the names of 687 people who visited the 
office of the Commission and made inquiries pertaining to their rights and 
obligations under the Civil Rights Statutes. 

Speaking Engagements 

Commission members and Field Representatives have welcomed opportuni- 
ties to speak to a wide variety of groups throughout the year. Some of these 
engagements are of a recurring nature and this is most welcome. For in- 
stance, invitations are accepted each year to speak before the regional meet- 
ings of the Massachusetts Division of Employment Security, the Police Train- 
ing School in Framingham and the various teacher training courses conducted 
by the Division of American Citizenship, State Department of Education. 

Conferences 

The Commission welcomes conferences with individuals and groups because 
these frank discussions have proven to be a most effective means of arriving 
at conclusions, straightening out troublesome problems and generally benefit- 
ing all. 

During the past year conferences have been held with the following in- 
dividuals and agencies: 

Gerald A. Berlin, Esq. N. E. Regional Counsel, American Jewish Congress 
Arthur A. Brennan, Northeast Airlines 
Hon. Robert Cauchon, Canadian Parliament 

J. P. Clifford, Director, Industrial Relations, Trans World Airlines 



13 



1 Joseph W. Connolly, General Manager, Martin Cerel Realtors 

j Hubert L. Connor, Director, Division of Apprentice Training, Massachusetts 

I Department of Labor and Industries 

j Miss Ann Corcoran, Executive Director, Martin Cerel Realtors 
I D. Leo Daley, Assistant Superintendent, Boston Public Schools 
I James DeRevere, Trans World Airlines 

John J. Desmond, Jr., Commissioner, Massachusetts Department of Education 

Maurice Downey, Director of Vocational Guidance, Boston Public Schools 

Stephen W. Fardy, Executive Secretary, Allied Printing Trades Council 

Peter A. Franklin, American Airlines 

Samuel W. Gaffer, Esq., Assistant Attorney General 

Mrs. Pauline Gardescu, International Institute 

L. Munro Grandy, Superintendent of Schools, Gloucester 

Murray Greenhill, Foreign Language Press Agency 

R. 0. Hach, Eastern Airlines 

Dr. Dennis C. Haley, Superintendent, Boston Public Schools 
Colonel Larkland Hewitt, President, N.A.A.C.P., Boston Branch 
Mrs. Catherine T. Johnson, Executive Director, Cambridge Civic Unity Com- 
mittee 

Miss Margaret Kelley, Interracial Council of New York 

Sol Kolack, New England Regional Director, Anti-Defamation League of 
B'nai B'rith 

Robert S. Kretschmar, Executive Secretary, American Automobile Association 
Mayor Harvey Lake, Pittsfield 

Mrs. Elinor McCabe, Director, Homemakers Services 

Francis E. McElroy, Executive Director, Northeastern Region, National Con- 
ference of Christians and Jews, Inc. 
Miss Ruth B. McFadden, Superintendent of Schools, New Bedford 
Lawrence McGinn, Superintendent of Schools, Lynn 
Edward Medley, U. S. Department of Labor 

James B. Mullin, Executive Secretary, Mayor's Civic Improvement Commit- 
tee, Boston 
Robert Myers, United Airlines 

Miss Alice W. O'Connor, Chairman, Division of Immigration and Americani- 
zation, Massachusetts Department of Education 
Edward O'Toole, City Manager, Revere 
Bergen B. Papalyea, Pan American Airlines 

John A. Ruskowski, Associate Director, New York State Joint Legislative 

Committee on Problems of the Aging 
W. Duncan Russell, Division Director, Recreation, Informal Education and 

Group Work Division, United Community Services of Greater Boston 
Robert E. Segal, Executive Director, Jewish Community Council 
Jacob Seidenberg, Executive Director, President's Committee on Government 

Contracts 

Arthur Seserman, Executive Secretary, National Metal Trades Association 
Jason R. Silverman, Esq., Community Service Director, Anti-Defamation 

League of B'nai B'rith 
Herbert L. Sultan, Philadelphia Quartermaster Depot 
Thomas Trainor, Mohawk Airlines 

Herbert E. Tucker, Esq., Vice President, N.A.A.C.P., Boston Branch 

Harold Vaughan, Afro-American 

Willie Washington, Boston Graphic 

Joseph Weisberg, Jewish Advocate 

Annual Labor Institute on Human Relations 

Conference of all North American Commissions Against Discrimination 
Eastern Seaboard Apprenticeship Conference 
Editors of Foreign Language Press 
Hyannis Police Department 

Intergroup Relations Council of Greater Boston 



14 



Massachusetts Legislative Committee on Education 

Minority Group Agency Representatives 
October Conference of Educators 
State Committee on the Employment of the Aged 
Urban League of Greater Boston 

Council Activities 

The Commission is empowered to appoint Councils according to Chapter 
151B, Section 3, Paragraph 8, which reads: 

"To create such advisory agencies and conciliation councils, local, regional 
or state-wide, as in its judgment will aid in effectuating the purposes of 
this chapter, and the Commission may empower them to study the prob- 
lems of discrimination in all or specific fields of human relationships or in 
specific instances of discrimination, because of race, color, religious creed, 
national origin, age or ancestry, in order to foster, through community 
effort or otherwise, good will, cooperation and conciliation among the groups 
and elements of the population of the Commonwealth, and make recom- 
mendations to the Commission for the development of policies and pro- 
cedures in general and in specific instances, and for programs of formal 
and informal education which the Commission may recommend to the ap- 
propriate state agency. Such advisory agencies and conciliation councils 
shall be composed of representative citizens, serving without pay, but with 
reimbursement for actual and necessary traveling expenses; and the Com- 
mission may make provision for technical and clerical assistance to such 
agencies and councils and for the expenses of such assistance." 

The State Advisory Council is consulted by the Commission on general 
policies and programming. Its most recent member is The Right Reverend 
Anson Phelps Stokes, Jr., Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Massachusetts, 
who succeeds The Reverend Robert G. Metters. 

Four of the five regional councils meet in Springfield, Boston, Worcester, 
New Bedford, while the North Shore Council meets in Lynn. These Councils 
help specifically in educational work. They introduce the Commission in a 
favorable manner to their respective communities. Confidence in Council mem- 
bers is in a sense transferred to the Commission. 

Council programs are often very similar. If a survey or study proves worth- 
while in one area of the State, there is an excellent chance that another 
Council will follow that lead. 

As an illustration of this in the past year, the Boston, Springfield, Wor- 
cester and New Bedford Councils made a study of the employment and ad- 
mittance policies of hospitals and nursing homes to make sure these policies 
are in compliance with the law. In Boston and New Bedford industrial sur- 
veys were also completed. 

All five Councils studied the ratings of colored and white High School stu- 
dents in the top fourth of the graduating class. 

In addition, all five Councils promoted the showing of the film "Commence- 
ment," which was produced by and is available from the President's Committee 
on Government Contracts for the nominal charge of $2.00. 

The Boston Council sponsored a survey of the Building Trades and is now- 
studying banks, public utilities and insurance companies with special em- 
phasis on upgrading policies. 

During Civil Rights Week the North Shore Council devoted a great deal 
of time to securing appropriate newspaper coverage which included printing 
in full a small pamphlet entitled "Civil Rights Statutes," as well as radio 
broadcasts, window displays and special materials in schools and libraries. 

Three of the Councils, Worcester, New Bedford and the North Shore Coun- 
cil, have found it helpful to appoint special committees. Worcester was the 



15 



first Council to do so with very fine results. In the main, however, the Councils 
act in an advisory capacity and the work they outline and sponsor is carried 
out by MCAD Field Representatives. 

In addition to this sampling of Council activities, the Councils are at all times 
valuable outposts of the Commission since the Commission operates from one 
central ofl^ice in Boston. If something occurs in a Council area that warrants 
investigation, the Commission has been able to depend on Council members 
to report it. Council members have no responsibility in the processing of 
individual complaints beyond assisting a complainant to get in touch with 
the Commission. Their work is educational and the Commission deeply ap- 
preciates the fact that Section 3, Paragraph 8 made their creation possible. 

State Advisory Council Membership 

John J. Desmond, Jr., Chairman, State Commissioner of Education 

Dr. Gordon W. Allport, Professor of Psychology, Department of Social 
Relations, Harvard University 

Rt. Rev. Robert P. Barry, LL.D., St. Clement's Church, Trustee of Massa- 
chusetts General Hospital 

Dean Clarence Q. Berger, Brandeis University 

Thomas H. Carens, Vice-President in charge of Public Relations, Boston 

Edison Company 
Charles C. Dasey, Retired, Manager, Cunard White Star, Ltd. 
Rabbi Roland B. Gittlesohn, Temple Israel 

Judge Jacob J. Kaplan, former president, Boston Bar Association 
Rt. Rev. Anson P. Stokes, Jr., Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Massa- 
chusetts 

Dr. Howard Thurman, Dean, Marsh Chapel, Boston University 
Regional Council Membership 

Boston 

Paul T. Rothwell, Chairman, President, Bay State Milling Company 
Norman H. Abbott, Director, Boston University Placement Service 
J. William Belanger, President, Mass. State CIO 

Julius Bernstein, Executive Secretary, Mass. Labor Committee for Human 
Rights 

Salvatore Camelio, Secretary-Treasurer, Mass. State CIO, District Di- 
rector, United Rubber Workers, CIO 
Frederic C. Church, Senior Partner, Boit, Dalton & Church 
John V. Connolly, President, Photo Engravers* Union, Local No. 3 
Hubert L. Connor, Director, Massachusetts Division of Apprentice 
Training 

Norris G. Davis, Member, Business & Professional Men's Club 

John E. Deady, Secretary-Treasurer, Building and Construction Trades 

Council, Metropolitan District 
William H. Eastman, Personnel Director, John Hancock Mutual Life 

Insurance Company 
Stephen W. Fardy, Executive Secretary, Allied Printing Trades Council 

of Boston 

Harry P. Grages, Chairman, State Labor Relations Board 

Harold D. Hodgkinson, Vice-President & General Manager, William 

Filene's Sons Company, Chairman of the Board, The Federal Reserve 

Bank of Boston 

Ernest A. Johnson, Commissioner, Massachusetts Department of Labor 
and Industries 

Michael T. Kelleher, Vice-President, Marsh & McLennan, Inc. 
Kenneth J. Kelley, Secretary-Treasurer & Legislative Agent, Mass. State 
Federation of Labor 



16 



Stephen E. McCloskey, Secretary-Treasurer & Business Agent, Central 
Labor Union 

Albert C. Palmer, Vice-President, Personnel, New England Telephone & 
Telegraph Co. 

Thomas A. Pappas, President, C. Pappas Company, Inc. 
Colonel Leonard T. Peters, Peters Employment Service 
Sidney R. Rabb, Chairman of the Board, Stop & Shop, Inc. 
Arthur Seserman, Executive Secretary, National Metal Trades Associa- 
tion, Boston Branch 
F. Frank Vorenberg, President, Gilchrist Company 

Leslie E. Woods, Director of Industrial Relations, Raytheon Manufactur- 
ing Company 

New Bedford 

Judge August C. Taveira, Chairman 

Miss Laurinda Andrade, New Bedford High School 

Judge Samuel Barnet, Special Justice, Third District Court, Bristol County 

Henry A. Bartkiewicz, Esq. 

Walter Bonner, New Bedford High School 

George E. Carignan, Director, New Bedford Joint Board, Textile Workers 

Union of America, CIO 
Miss Joy E. Colvin, Executive Director, Young Women's Christian Associ- 

tion 

Joseph Dawson, President, Knowles Loom Reed Works 
Mrs. Annette DeMello, Head of French Department, New Bedford High 
School 

Joseph A. DeSousa, Director, Adult Civic Education Department, New 

Bedford School Department 
Duncan Dottin 

Joseph P. Duchaine, President, My Bread Baking Company 
Alfred J. Gomes, Esq. 

Rev. Edward A. Hailes, Union Baptist Church 

Harold Hurwitz, Esq., Past State President, Junior Chamber of Commerce 
Miss Ruth B. McFadden, Superintendent of Schools 

George F. McGovern, Works Manager, Revere Copper & Brass Company 
C. Dudley Onley, Secretary, New Bedford Branch, N.A.A.C.P. 
Fermino J. Spencer 

Mrs. Dorothy D. Stahre, Principal, Cedar Grove Street School 

Fred W. Steele, Executive Secretary, New Bedford Cotton Manufacturers 

Association 
Representative Joseph A. Sylvia, Jr. 
Dr. Xenophon Thomas, N.A.A.C.P. 

Philip F. Tripp, Executive Director, New Bedford Housing Authority 
John Marcus Williams 

Mrs. Francis S. Winsper, Vice-Chairman, New Bedford Council of Social 

Agencies, League of Women Voters 
Donald Zeman, Esq. 

Mrs. Anthony Zielinski, Vice-President, Polish National Alliance; Trustee, 
Polish-American Veterans Auxiliary 

North Shore 

Henry Kozlowski, Chairman, Treasurer, Jackson & Phillips, Inc. 
Chester R. Arnold, Principal, Salem High School 
Anthony Athanas, President, Hawthorne Restaurants, Inc. 
Mrs. Mary F. Berlyn, Adult Civic Education, Lynn Public Schools 
Abraham Caswell, Treasurer, Caswell-Doucette Shoe Company 
Thomas D. Chatfield, President, Essex Trust Company 
Thomas J. Curtin, Director of American Citizenship, State Department 
of Education 



17 



Mrs. Solomon Feldman, Member, Jewish Community Center of Greater 
Lynn 

Abraham Glovsky, Esq., Glovsky & Glovsky, Beverly 
Mrs. Charles F, Haywood, Chief Librarian, Lynn Public Library 
Francis L. Keane, Director, Pupil Adjustment and Occupational Place- 
ment, Lynn Public Schools 
Mrs. Doris Latimer, Librarian, Lynn Daily Evening ITEM 
John M. Lilly, General Secretary, Young Men's Christian Association 
Lawrence McGinn, Superintendent of Schools, Lynn School Department 
Chester C. Nemphos, Legislative Agent and Member, Civil Rights Com- 
mittee, Local 201, lUE-ClO 
Norman J. Randall, Manager, Plant Community Relations, General Elec- 
tric Company 

Theodore Regnante, Esq., President, Lynn Bar Association 
Armand J. St. Laurent 

Dr. William D. Washington, Commissioner, Massachusetts Commission 

Against Discrimination 
William A. Welch, Superintendent of Schools, Peabody School Department 

Springfield 

Charles V. Ryan, Esq., Chah^an 

Mrs. Richard B. Anderson, League of Women Voters 

Robert G. Bleakney, General Superintendent, New England Telephone & 

Telegraph Company 
John H. Breck, Jr., John H. Breck, Inc. 

Archie Burack, Treasurer and General Manager, Industrial Buildings 
Corporation 

Miss Clarace E. Gait, Head Psychiatric Social Worker, Child Guidance 

Clinic of Springfield, Inc. 
€eorge C. Gordon, N.A.A.C.P. 

Miss Alice L. Halligan, Director, Bureau of Guidance, Placement and 

Adult Education, Springfield School Department 
Robert W. Hutton, Executive Secretary, Employers' Association of 

Western Massachusetts 
Mrs. Thelma L. Keitlen, Regional Director, Western Massachusetts Area, 

Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith 
Dr. Howard P. Kennedy 
Raymond T. King, Esq. 

Roger L. Putnam, President, Package Machinery Company 
Mrs. Roger L. Putnam, Springfield Housing Authority 
Frederick B. Robinson, Director, Springfield Museum of Fine Arts 
Mrs. Charles V. Ryan 

James J. Shea, President, Milton-Bradley Company 
Rev. Eugene Sparrow, Urban League of Springfield 
Charles ViVenzio, Local 202, lUE-CIO 

Worcester 

Andrew B. Holmstrom, Chairman, Vice-President, Norton Company 
Mrs. Laurence J. Bouchard, Massachusetts Parent Teachers Association 
Lyscom A. Bruce, Secretary, Community Chest of Worcester 
Rev. Hubert C. Callaghan, S.J., Holy Cross College 
Miss Virginia Carrier, Young Women's Christian Association 
Daniel J. Casale, Manager, Massachusetts Division of Employment Se- 
curity 

Frederick H. Case, Jr., Field Representative, Public Relations, U. S. 
Steel Company 

Dr. Thomas E. Christensen, Director of Guidance, Worcester School 
Department 



18 



Gardener C. DeMallie, President, Family Service Organization 

Donald S. Donnelly, Employment Service Supervisor, Massachusetts 

Division of Employment Security 
Samuel J. Donnelly, A. F. of L. 

Mrs. Katherine F. Erskine, Member, School Committee of Worcester 
Mrs. Daniel Farber, President, Interracial Council of Worcester 
Judge Joseph Goldberg, Chairman, Worcester Area Committee, Anti- 
Defamation League of B'nai B'rith 
Mrs. Marian Hallock, League of Women Voters 

Dr. Ralph L. Holland, Executive Secretary, Greater Worcester Area 

Council of Churches 
Loren K. Hutchinson, Manager, Industrial Relations, Wyman-Gordon 

Company 

Dr. Howard B. Jefferson, President, Clark University 
Rabbi Joseph Klein, Temple Emmanuel 

Allan F. Knight, Director, Industrial Relations, Harrington and Rich- 
ardson, Inc. 
Miss Anna Mays, N.A.A.C.P. 

Philip M. Morgan, President, Morgan Construction . Company 
Mrs. Arthur G. Perry, Worcester Council of Mothers' Clubs 
Mrs. Thomas L. Porter 
Thomas F. Power 
Miss Julia E. Robinson 

Mrs. Dorothy L. Salter, Salter Secretarial School 

Paul W. Spaulding, President, John C. Maclnnes Company 

Roy H. Stevens, Jr., United Steel Workers of America, CIO 

George A. Strait, Worcester County Law Library Association 

Judge Carl E. Wahlstrom 

Dr. Joseph Weinreb, Worcester Youth Center 



oo